Germ Cell Tumors of Mediastinum
Mediastinal germinomas; Mediastinal gonocytomas
Germ cell tumors (GCTs) of the mediastinum are a heterogeneous group of tumors histopathologically corresponding to various ovarian and testicular germ cell tumors. The cell of origin of mediastinal GCT has not been identified although it has been proposed that they originate from misplaced primordial germ cells which have not reached the gonadal anlage during early embryogenesis.
Germ cell tumors of the mediastinum are rare, accounting for less than 5% of all human GCTs. Nevertheless, mediastinum represents the most common site for extragonadal GCT. Accordingly, mediastinal GCTs comprise approximately two thirds of all extragonadal GCTs. An increased incidence of mediastinal GCT has been recorded in patients with Klinefelter syndrome
GCTs occur in all age groups, with a peak incidence in the 15–35 years age group (Stang et al. 2012). Seminomas occur only after the onset of puberty and...
References and Further Reading
- Weidner, N. (1999). Germ-cell tumors of the mediastinum. Seminars Diagnostic Pathology, 16, 42–50.Google Scholar
- Wick, M. R., Perlman, E. J., Gobel, U., et al. (2004). Teratoma. In W. D. Travis, E. Brambilla, H. K. Muller-Hermelink, & C. C. Harris (Eds.), Tumours of the lung, pleura, thymus and heart. Lyon: IARC Press.Google Scholar