Advertisement

From Success to Significance: Transforming Your Job into a Calling

  • Emem Laguda
  • Kemi Ogunyemi
  • Eugene Ohu
Reference work entry

Abstract

This chapter gives an overview of the research on calling with regard to its definitions and conceptualizations based on its different sources. We describe the scales that have been utilized to measure the source of a calling, perceived presence of a calling, the act of living a calling, and the act of developing a calling. We highlight processes through which a sense of calling relates to its predictors as well as to career-related, work, and wellbeing outcomes. We describe the potential dark sides of calling with regard to its negative outcomes for individuals. Lastly, we propose future directions for researchers and practitioners on possible ways employees may move from success to significance by transforming their jobs to callings.

Keywords

Success Significance Job Work Career Wellbeing Calling Meaningful work 

References

  1. Autin KL, Allan BA, Palaniappan M, Duffy RD (2016) Career calling in India and the United States: a cross-cultural measurement study. J Career Assess.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1069072716665860
  2. Bellah, Madsen R, Sullivan WM, Swidler A, Tipton SM (1985) Habits of the heart. Berkeley. University of California Press. “Academic Ability and Performance”. Soc Psychol Q 49:103–109Google Scholar
  3. Bellah, Madsen R, Sullivan WM, Swidler A, Tipton SM (2007) Habits of the heart: individualism and commitment in American life. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  4. Berg JM, Grant AM, Johnson V (2010) When callings are calling: crafting work and leisure in pursuit of unanswered occupational callings. Organ Sci 21(5):973–994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Berkelaar, Buzzanell PM (2015) Bait and switch or double-edged sword? The (sometimes) failed promises of calling. Human Relat 68(1):157–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brown ME, Treviño LK (2006) Ethical leadership: a review and future directions. Leadersh Q 17(6):595–616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Buechner F (1973) Wishful thinking. HarperOne, New York, 1993, 104Google Scholar
  8. Bunderson JS, Thompson JA (2009) The call of the wild: zookeepers, callings, and the double-edged sword of deeply meaningful work. Adm Sci Q 54(1):32–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cardador MT, Dane E, Pratt MG (2011) Linking calling orientations to organizational attachment via organizational instrumentality. J Vocat Behav 79(2):367–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen J, May DR, Schwoerer CE, Augelli B (2016) Exploring the boundaries of career calling: the moderating roles of procedural justice and psychological safety. J Career Dev:10.1177/0894845316671214Google Scholar
  11. Ciulla JB (2000). The working life: the promise and betrayal of modern work. New York: Three Rivers Press.Google Scholar
  12. Conklin TA (2012) Work worth doing: a phenomenological study of the experience of discovering and following one’s calling. J Manag Inq 21(3):298–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Coulson J, Oades L, Stoyles G (2012) Parent’s conception and experience of calling in child rearing: a qualitative analysis. J Humanist Psychol 52(2):222–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Davidson JC, Caddell DP (1994) Religion and the meaning of work. J Sci Study Relig:135–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Demuijnck G, Ogunyemi K, Lasida E, (2015) Business and management practices influenced by Catholic humanism: three case studies. In: Melé D, Schlag M (eds) Humanism in economics and business, issues in business ethics, vol 43. Dordrecht: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-9704-7_13Google Scholar
  16. Dik, Duffy (2009) Calling and vocation at work: definitions and prospects for research and practice. Couns Psychol 37(3):424–450.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0011000008316430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dik, Duffy (2014). Best practices in promoting calling and vocation in career counseling. In M. Pope, L. Flores, & P. Rottinghaus (Eds.), The role of values in careers. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
  18. Dik, Duffy (2015) Strategies for discerning and living a calling. In P. Hartung, M. Savickas & B. Walsh (Eds.) APA Handbook of Career Intervention (pp 305–317). Washington, DC: American Psychological AssociationGoogle Scholar
  19. Dik, Eldridge BM, Steger MF, Duffy RD (2012) Development and validation of the calling and vocation questionnaire (CVQ) and brief calling scale (BCS). J Career Assess 20(3):242–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dobrow SR, Tosti-Kharas J (2011) Calling: the development of a scale measure. Pers Psychol 64(4):1001–1049CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Domene JF (2012) Calling and career outcome expectations: the mediating role of self-efficacy. J Career Assess 20(3):281–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Douglass RP, Duffy RD (2015) Calling and career adaptability among undergraduate students. J Vocat Behav 86:58–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Douglass RP, Duffy RD, Autin KL (2016) Living a calling, nationality, and life satisfaction: a moderated, multiple mediator model. J Career Assess 24(2):253–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dreher DE, Holloway KA, Schoenfelder E (2007) The vocation identity questionnaire: measuring the sense of calling. In: Research in the social scientific study of religion, vol 18. pp 99–120. Leiden: Brill Google Scholar
  25. Duffy, Autin KL (2013) Disentangling the link between perceiving a calling and living a calling. J Couns Psychol 60(2):219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Duffy, Dik (2013) Research on calling: what have we learned and where are we going? J Vocat Behav 83(3):428–436.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2013.06.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Duffy, Sedlacek WE (2007) The presence of and search for a calling: connections to career development. J Vocat Behav 70(3):590–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Duffy, Allan BA, Dik BJ (2011a) The presence of a calling and academic satisfaction: examining potential mediators. J Vocat Behav 79(1):74–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Duffy, Dik BJ, Steger MF (2011b) Calling and work-related outcomes: career commitment as a mediator. J Vocat Behav 78(2):210–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Duffy, Allan, Bott EM (2012a) Calling and life satisfaction among undergraduate students: investigating mediators and moderators. J Happiness Stud 13(3):469–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Duffy, Foley PF, Raque-Bodgan TL, Reid-Marks L, Dik BJ, Castano MC, Adams CM (2012b) Counseling psychologists who view their careers as a calling: a qualitative study. J Career Assess 20(3):293–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Duffy, Allan BA, Autin KL, Bott EM (2013) Calling and life satisfaction: it’s not about having it, it’s about living it. J Couns Psychol 60(1):42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Duffy, Allan, Bott, Dik (2014a) Does the source of a calling matter? External summons, destiny, and perfect fit. J Career Assess 22(4):562–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Duffy, Douglass RP, Autin KL, Allan BA (2014b) Examining predictors and outcomes of a career calling among undergraduate students. J Vocat Behav 85(3):309–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Duffy RD, Autin KL, Allan BA, Douglass RP (2015) Assessing work as a calling: an evaluation of instruments and practice recommendations. J Career Assess 23(3):351–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Duffy, Autin KL, Douglass RP (2016a) Examining how aspects of vocational privilege relate to living a calling. J Posit Psychol 11(4):416–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Duffy, Douglass RP, Autin KL, England J, Dik BJ (2016b) Does the dark side of a calling exist? Examining potential negative effects. J Posit Psychol 11(6):634–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Duffy E, Douglass RP, Autin KL, Allan BA (2017) Perceiving a calling and well-being: motivation and access to opportunity as moderators. J Vocat Behav 98:127–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Elangovan, Pinder, McLean (2010) Callings and organizational behavior. J Vocat Behav 76(3):428–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Enderle G (2011) Three major challenges for business and economic ethics in the next ten years: wealth creation, human rights, and active involvement of the world’s religions. Bus Prof Ethics J 30(3/4):231–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Frankl VE (2011) Man’s search for ultimate meaning. Random House, ChathamGoogle Scholar
  42. Gazica MW, Spector PE (2015) A comparison of individuals with unanswered callings to those with no calling at all. J Vocat Behav 91:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hagmaier T, Abele AE (2012) The multidimensionality of calling: conceptualization, measurement and a bicultural perspective. J Vocat Behav 81(1):39–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hall DT, Chandler DE (2005) Psychological success: when the career is a calling. J Organ Behav 26(2):155–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hirschi A (2012) Callings and work engagement: moderated mediation model of work meaningfulness, occupational identity, and occupational self-efficacy. J Couns Psychol 59(3):479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hirschi A, Herrmann A (2012) Vocational identity achievement as a mediator of presence of calling and life satisfaction. J Career Assess 20(3):309–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hunter I, Dik BJ, Banning JH (2010) College students’ perceptions of calling in work and life: a qualitative analysis. J Vocat Behav 76(2):178–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. John Paul II (1981) Encyclical letter Laborem Exercens. Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican CityGoogle Scholar
  49. Judge TA, Erez A, Bono JE, Thoresen CJ (2003) The core self-evaluations scale: development of a measure. Pers Psychol 56(2):303–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lopez SJ (2011) The encyclopedia of positive psychology. West Sussex: Wiley-BlackwellGoogle Scholar
  51. Paul VI (1967) Encyclical letter Populorum Progressio (On the development of peoples). Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican CityGoogle Scholar
  52. Pavlovich K (2012) Faith, hope, and care: integrity and poverty alleviation through enterprise. In: Stachowicz-Stanusch A, Amann W (eds) Business integrity in practice. Business Expert Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  53. Peterson C, Park N, Hall N, Seligman ME (2009) Zest and work. J Organ Behav 30(2):161–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ponton R, Brown T, McDonnell B, Clark C, Pepe J, Deykerhoff M (2014) Vocational perception: a mixed-method investigation of calling. Psychol-Manag J 17(3):182Google Scholar
  55. Praskova A, Creed PA, Hood M (2015) The development and initial validation of a career calling scale for emerging adults. J Career Assess 23(1):91–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Pratt MG, Ashforth BE (2003) Fostering meaningfulness in working and at work. Positive organizational scholarship: foundations of a new discipline (pp 309–327). San Francisco: Berrett-KoehlerGoogle Scholar
  57. Pratt MG, Pradies C, Lepisto DA (2013) Doing well, doing good, and doing with: organizational practices for effectively cultivating meaningful work. In B. Dik, Z. Byrne, & M. Steger (Eds.), Purpose and meaning in the workplace (pp 173–198). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Google Scholar
  58. Raatikainen R (1997) Nursing care as a calling. J Adv Nurs 25(6):1111–1115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rawat A, Nadavulakere S (2015) Examining the outcomes of having a calling: does context matter? J Bus Psychol 30(3):499–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Reeb L (2004) From success to significance: when the pursuit of success isn’t enough. Grand Rapids: ZondervanGoogle Scholar
  61. Rego A, Pina e Cunha M (2008) Workplace spirituality and organizational commitment: an empirical study. J Organ Chang Manag 21(1):53–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rosso BD, Dekas KH, Wrzesniewski A (2010) On the meaning of work: a theoretical integration and review. Res Organ Behav 30:91–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Steger MF, Pickering NK, Shin JY, Dik BJ (2010) Calling in work: secular or sacred? J Career Assess 18(1):82–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Vinje HF, Mittelmark MB (2007) Job engagement’s paradoxical role in nurse burnout. Nurs Health Sci 9(2):107–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wang J, Dai L (2017) Calling: a literature review and prospect. J Hum Resour Sustain Stud 5(01):94Google Scholar
  66. Weaver GR, Agle BR (2002) Religiosity and ethical behavior in organizations: a symbolic interactionist perspective. Acad Manag Rev 27(1):77–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Weber M (1958). The Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism (trans: Parsons T). Scribner, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  68. Weber M (1993) The sociology of religion. Beacon Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  69. Weiss JW, Skelley MF, Haughey JC, Hall D (2003) Calling, new careers and spirituality a reflective perspective for organizational leaders and professionals. Spiritual intelligence at work: meaning, metaphor, and morals. Emerald Group Publishing Limited, London, pp 175–201Google Scholar
  70. Wrzesniewski, A. (2012). CallingsGoogle Scholar
  71. Wrzesniewski A, Dutton JE (2001) Crafting a job: revisioning employees as active crafters of their work. Acad Manag Rev 26(2):179–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Wrzesniewski A, McCauley C, Rozin P, Schwartz B (1997) Jobs, careers, and callings: people’s relations to their work. J Res Pers 31(1):21–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Xie B, Xia M, Xin X, Zhou W (2016) Linking calling to work engagement and subjective career success: the perspective of career construction theory. J Vocat Behav 94:70–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Zhang C, Herrmann A, Hirschi A, Wei J, Zhang J (2015) Assessing calling in Chinese college students: development of a measure and its relation to hope. J Career Assess 23(4):582–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Organizational Behaviour/Human Resource ManagementLagos Business SchoolLagosNigeria
  2. 2.Business Ethics, Managerial Anthropology, and Sustainability ManagementLagos Business School, Pan-Atlantic UniversityLagosNigeria

Personalised recommendations