A patient is immunocompromised because of either an acquired or inherited immune deficiency disorder. The causes of inherited immunodeficiency are numerous, such as human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), solid organ transplant, bone marrow transplant (BMT), cancer, chemotherapy, lymphoma, glucocorticoid therapy, splenectomy, and trauma. Immunocompromised patients are at increased risk for life-threatening infectious complications that should be treated aggressively as early as possible. Clinical neuroradiology plays an important role in diagnosing and therapy monitoring of central nervous system (CNS) infections in immunocompromised individuals.
Infections can be viral, bacterial, fungal, or parasitic in origin and will depend on the severity of immunodeficiency, the cause of immunodeficiency, and also the period of the most intensive immunosuppression. This chapter will discuss the most common CNS infections in immunosuppressed patients and focus on radiological techniques used for their detection and differentiation.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) Infection (viral, parasitic, fungal) Encephalitis Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
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