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Management of Radioactive Wastes

  • Bouchra El Hilal
  • Mohammed Hussein Rafeq Khudhair
  • Ahmed El Harfi
Living reference work entry

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Abstract

The radioactivity is a natural phenomenon and natural sources of radiation present in the environment. Radiation and radioactive substances have many useful applications, ranging from power generation to medical, industrial, and agricultural applications. At the end of their use, the radioactive elements containing in the used materials (radioactive waste) cannot be destroyed by any known chemical or mechanical process. Their final destruction is the fact either of a transformation into stable isotopes by radioactive decay or of a nuclear transmutation under the effect of the bombardment of atomic particles. The management of the radioactive waste, therefore, consists of controlling radioactive waste and maintaining it at a tolerable level in order to control the risks presented to man and his environment. The stakes of the management of radioactive waste are therefore of several kinds, technical and scientific, but also political and ethical; the fact that certain wastes generated pose safety problems in the very long term because their harmfulness can extend over very long periods of time.

Keywords

Radioactve waste Management of radioactive wastes Radioactivity Radioactive decay Classification of radioactive waste Disposal Quality management system ion exchange resins Radiological ris Exempted waste Very short lived waste Very low level waste Low level waste High level waste Low and intermediate level waste Waste minimization Safety and security 

List of Abbreviation

CENM

Centre d’Etudes Nucléaires de la Maâmora

CGEM

General Confederation of Moroccan Companies

CNEN

Conseil National de l’Energie Nucléaire

CNESTEN

Centre National de l’Energie, des Sciences et des Techniques Nucléaires

CNRP

Centre National de Radioprotection

CNSN

Commission Nationale de Sûreté Nucléaire

DSRS

Disused sealed radioactive sources

EW

Exempt waste

IAEA

International Atomic Energy Agency

LLW

Low level waste

MEMEE

Ministère de l’Energie, des Mines, de l’Eau et de l’Environnement (Ministry of Energy, Mines, Water and Environment)

MoH

Ministry of Health (Ministère de la Santé)

NORM

Naturally occurring radioactive materials

NRSSA

Nuclear and Radiological Safety and Security Agency (Agence de Sûreté et de Sécurité Nucléaires et Radiologiques)

QMS

Quality Management System

RAIS

Regulatory Authority Information System

RW

Radioactive waste

RWM

Radioactive Waste Management

SNF

Spent nuclear fuel

TENORM

Technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials

TSO

Technical support organization

VLLW

Very low level waste

VSLW

Very short lived waste

WHO

World Health Organization

WMO

Waste Management Organization

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bouchra El Hilal
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mohammed Hussein Rafeq Khudhair
    • 1
  • Ahmed El Harfi
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Agro resources Polymers and Process engineering (LAPPE), Team of Macromolecular and Organic Chemistry, Faculty of sciencesIbn Tofail UniversityKenitraMorocco
  2. 2.Operation Unit of the Radioactive Waste, Center of Nuclear Studies of Maamora (CENM) (CNESTEN)KenitraMorocco

Section editors and affiliations

  • Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and Environmental SciencesNew Jersey Institute of TechnologyNewarkUSA

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