Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

Living Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Toxic-Metabolic Encephalopathy

  • Bruce J. Diamond
  • Joseph E. Mosley
  • Keith Happawana
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-56782-2_580-4

Synonyms

Definition

Metabolic encephalopathies are chemical disorders that adversely impact consciousness, cognition and alertness; they are primarily attributable to systemic infectious, toxic or metabolic derangements, but not structural lesions (Krishnan et al. 2014; McCandless 2009; Young and DeRubeis 1998). Toxic-metabolic encephalopathy (TME) characteristically involves delirium and an acute confusional state accompanied by global cerebral dysfunction in the absence of primary structural brain disease (Chen and Young 1996). TME is often underrecognized and undertreated and generally results from systemic disease (Milbrandt et al. 2004; Ely et al. 2004a, b; Teodorczuk et al. 2012). The clinical presentation of TME is frequently confused with dementia (Teodorczuk et al. 2012).

Current Knowledge

Classification

Examples of metabolic encephalopathies include Wernicke’s encephalopathy, Addison disease, hypoglycemia, hypothermia,...

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References and Readings

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bruce J. Diamond
    • 1
  • Joseph E. Mosley
    • 1
  • Keith Happawana
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyWilliam Paterson UniversityWayneUSA