Viral encephalitis is a condition in which a virus infects the brain, causing immune-mediated inflammatory changes and destruction of gray matter that is usually accompanied by inflammation of the adjacent meninges (Anderson 2001; Beckham and Tyler 2012; Boos and Esiri 2003; Halperin 2007; Nath and Berger 2000; Roos and Tyler 2008; Steiner et al. 2010). Viral encephalitis sometimes causes irreversible impairments in brain function. Therefore, it is critical to determine the appropriate diagnosis and begin treatment in a timely manner.
Viral encephalitis is categorized as (1) acute, (2) subacute/chronic, or (3) parainfectious (Boos and Esiri 2003). Symptom profiles that deteriorate rapidly over a period of 2–3 days show an acute onset and require immediate medical intervention. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is the most common cause of viral encephalitis and follows this temporal pattern (Anderson 2001)....
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