Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

Living Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Ptosis

  • Theslee Joy DePiero
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-56782-2_476-2

Definition

Ptosis refers to a droopy upper eyelid due to insufficient opening of the eyelid. Ptosis can be unilateral or bilateral, depending on the cause. The normal position of the upper eyelid is at the upper border of the pupil, or just above the pupil, and both eyelids should be at the same level. The levator, innervated by cranial nerve III, is the major muscle involved in eyelid opening. Muller’s muscle, innervated by the sympathetic fibers ascending on the internal carotid artery is a minor contributor. Common causes are Horner’s Syndrome, Third Nerve Palsy, Myasthenia Gravis, aging and eye surgery such as cataract extraction.

Cross-References

References and Readings

  1. (2016). Walsh and Hoyt’s clinical neuro-ophthalmology: The essentials (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Braintree Rehabilitation HospitalBoston University School of MedicineBostonUSA