Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

Living Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

  • Elliot Roth
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-56782-2_2201-2

Synonyms

Definition

A subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is bleeding into the subarachnoid space that exists between the arachnoid and pia membranes that surround the brain.

Current Knowledge

SAH may result from trauma or occur spontaneously from a ruptured cerebral aneurysm or less commonly from an arteriovenous malformation. SAH comprises 1–7% of all strokes. Incidence is estimated to be about 9 per 100,000 per year. Patients with SAH tend to be younger than those with other types of stroke, but the incidence increases with age. SAH is a medical emergency and can lead to death or severe disability. Up to one-half are fatal, many even before the patient reaches the hospital. Symptoms include rapid onset of a severe headache (often called a “thunderclap headache”), nausea, confusion, altered consciousness, seizure, visual disturbances, cardiac arrhythmias, and focal neurological deficits such as hemiparesis, sensory loss, or aphasia. About one-third of...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Bederson, J. B., Connolly, E. S., Batjer, H. H., Dacey, R. G., Dion, J. E., Diringer, M. N., Duldner, J. E., Harbaugh, R. E., Patel, A. B., & Rosenwasser, R. H. (2009). Guidelines for the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: A statement for healthcare professionals from a special writing Group of the Stroke Council, American Heart Association. Stroke, 40, 994–1025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Connolly, E. S., Jr., Rabinstein, A. A., Carhuapoma, J. R., Derdeyn, C. P., Dion, J., Higashida, R. T., Hoh, B. L., Kirkness, C. J., Naidech, A. M., Ogilvy, C. S., Patel, A. B., Thompson, B. G., Vespa, P., & on behalf of the American Heart Association Stroke Council, Council on Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention, Council on Cardiovascular Nursing, Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia, and Council on Clinical Cardiology. (2012). Guidelines for the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: A guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke, 43, 1711–1737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. van Gijn, J., Kerr, R. S., & Rinkel, G. J. (2007). Subarachnoid haemorrhage. Lancet, 369, 306–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Physical Medicine and RehabilitationFeinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern UniversityChicagoUSA