Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

Living Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

  • Maya Balamane
  • Stephanie A. Kolakowsky-Hayner
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-56782-2_1774-2



Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is an extremely rare, but highly dangerous and potentially fatal, adverse reaction to treatment with neuroleptic drugs. It is characteristically associated with typical antipsychotic drugs such as haloperidol, fluphenazine,

olanzapine, risperidone, and aripiprazole, though, every class of neuroleptic drug has been associated, including the low-potency chlorpromazine and the newer atypical antipsychotic drugs clozapine, risperidone, and olanzapine alongside antiemetic drugs metoclopramide and promethazine too. Usually, it occurs within 2 weeks of initiation of a drug or a change in drug dose. NMS is more common in men than women, in persons with pre-existing medical and neurologic disorders, mental retardation, agitation, and iron deficiency. Symptoms often include fever, rigidity, labile mood, increased heart rate, and changes in consciousness or mental state. NMS is of importance to neuropsychologists...

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References and Readings

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maya Balamane
    • 1
  • Stephanie A. Kolakowsky-Hayner
    • 2
  1. 1.Mount Sinai Brain Injury Research CenterSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Stanford Concussion and Brain Performance CenterPalo AltoUSA