Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

Living Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Reading Fluency

  • Kathrine Hak
  • Yuan Yuan Wang
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-56782-2_1481-2



Reading fluency refers to a child’s ability to accurately and automatically read connected text. The National Reading Panel report defines reading fluency as “the ability to read text quickly, accurately, and with proper expression (p. 3–5). Similarly, Pikulski and Chard (2005) proposed that reading fluency refers to “rapid, efficient, accurate word recognition skills that permit to construct the meaning of text” (p. 511). A fluent reader decodes words automatically and therefore is able to devote attention and cognitive resources to the understanding of text. The essence of reading fluency is the ability to decode and comprehend the text spontaneously. The indicators of reading fluency include accuracy of word recognition, reading speed, the ability to read with expression, etc. However, those indicators only reflect reading fluency, which cannot be considered as reading fluency itself (Rasinski et al. 2012). Reading fluency is an essential skill for...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Readings

  1. Carnine, D. W., Silbert, J., Kame’enui, E. J., & Tarver, S. G. (2004). Direct instruction reading. Upper Saddle River: Pearson.Google Scholar
  2. Chard, D. J., Vaughn, S., & Tyler, B. J. (2002). A synthesis of research on effective interventions for building reading fluency with elementary students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35(5), 386–406.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. National Reading Panel (US), & National Institute of Child Health, & Human Development (US). (2000). Report of the national reading panel: Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction: Reports of the subgroups. Washington, DC: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health.Google Scholar
  4. Osborn, J., & Lehr, F., Hierbert, E. H. (2003). A focus on fluency. Honolulu: Pacific Resources for Education and Learning. Available at www.prel.org/products/re_/fluency-1pdf
  5. Pikulski, J. J., & Chard, D. J. (2005). Fluency: Bridge between decoding and reading comprehension. The Reading Teacher, 58(6), 510–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Rasinski, T. V., Blachowicz, C. L., & Lems, K. (Eds.). (2012). Fluency instruction: Research-based best practices. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  7. Samuels, S. J. (2002). Reading fluency: Its development and assessment. In A. E. Farstrup & S. J. Samules (Eds.), What research has to say about reading instruction (3rd ed., pp. 166–183). Newark: International Reading Association.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Applied Psychology and Counselor EducationUniversity of Northern ColoradoGreeleyUSA
  2. 2.Faculty of Health SciencesUniversity of MacauMacaoChina