Facial Erythema of Rosacea: Grading Scales

  • Christopher Lach
  • Jerry TanEmail author
Living reference work entry


Rosacea is a common condition characterized by centrofacial cutaneous features. Diagnosis is clinical and requires the presence of one of centrofacial erythema or phyma or two of the major criteria, which include flushing, papules/pustules, telangiectasia, and ocular manifestations. Assessment of facial erythema is of importance given its prevalence as the most common diagnostic feature of rosacea. Both physician-reported and patient-reported measures for assessing facial erythema of rosacea were developed during trials for brimonidine gel and subsequently tested for validity and reliability. The physician-reported measure was named the clinician erythema assessment (CEA), while the patient-reported measure was named the patient self-assessment (PSA). A variant of the PSA, termed the subject self-assessment (SSA), has also been created and used in subsequent clinical trials.


Rosacea Erythema PSA CEA SSA Grading Scale Validation 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medicine, Schulich School of Medicine and DentistryWestern UniversityWindsorCanada
  2. 2.Windsor Clinical Research Inc.WindsorCanada

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