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Adaptations; Amphibious; Life history trade-offs; Semiterrestrial lifestyle


Lifestyle enclosing living (or life stages) both in water and on land.

Origin of Life and Transition from Water to Land

Animal life developed in water and later invaded the land. Primitive land organisms were mostly myriapod-like forms occupying cryptozoic (i.e., low light, stable and cool temperature, high humidity) habitats. Providing complementary oxygen supply to water respiration during periods of oxygen shortage, air-breathing likely evolved in response to the insurgence of large areas of shallow waters provoked by the shift of the continents in the Silurian period, global decline in oxygen levels during the Middle Devonian, and higher metabolic costs due to greater mobility, competition, and predation pressures. In the end of the Devonian period, the so-called tetrapods (modern amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals), animals with limbs, supporting the skeleton, and lungs, slowly...

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Correspondence to Lorenzo Quaglietta .

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Quaglietta, L. (2022). Semi-aquatic. In: Vonk, J., Shackelford, T.K. (eds) Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior. Springer, Cham.

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