LC-MS/MS Determination of Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables

Living reference work entry
Part of the Reference Series in Phytochemistry book series (RSP)

Abstract

A proper diet is commonly regarded as one of the most important factors determining one’s health. A key role in such a diet is played by unprocessed food of plant origin, mainly fruits and vegetables, as they contain many important dietary bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, carotenoids, fiber, antioxidants, several important vitamins, and minerals. Despite the nutritional benefit, they may also contain substances that adversely affect human health. Pesticides constitute a special group of contaminants as even small amounts of these substances can result in acute poisoning, lead to cancer, and have an adverse impact on the endocrine, immune, and nervous system. A considerable number of pesticides have a harmful effect already in low concentrations, within the range of μg kg−1 and below μg kg−1; hence, there is a great need for identifying and determining them by means of highly selective and sensitive methods. In the analysis of pesticide residue, similarly to the analysis of other food contaminants, there is a clear tendency to prepare multiresidue methods that enable monitoring a large number of compounds in a great number and variety of samples. Most multiresidue methods reported for fruits and vegetables in the last decade are based mostly on the use of liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), which is the technique of choice for the majority of pesticides and their metabolites nowadays.

Keywords

Pesticides Fruits and Vegetables Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry 

Abbreviations

APCI

Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization

API

Atmospheric pressure ionization

ASE

Accelerated solvent extraction

C18

Octadecylated silica bounded stationary phase

C8

Octasilyl silica bounded stationary phase

CHEMAC

Conservative homogenizing extraction and multifunction adsorption cleanup

CID

Collision-induced dissociation

CNTs

Carbon nanotubes

dSPE

Dispersive solid phase extraction

ESI

Electrospray ionization

EU

European union

GC

Gas chromatography

GCB

Graphitized carbon black

GC-MS

Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer

GC-MS/MS

Gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometer

HPLC

High-performance liquid chromatography

HRMS

High-resolution mass spectrometry

LC-MS

Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer

LC-MS/MS

Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometer

LLE

Liquid–liquid extraction

MAE

Microwave-assisted extraction

MRL

Maximum residue level

MRM

Multiple reaction monitoring

MS

Mass spectrometry

MSPD

Matrix solid phase dispersion

MWCNTs

Multiwalled carbon nanotubes

OPPs

Organophospohorus pesticides

PSA

Primary–secondary amine

Q

Quadrupole

QQQ

Triple quadrupoles

Q-TOF

Quadrupole-time of flight

Q-Trap

Quadrupole-linear ion trap

QuEChERS

Quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe

SCAN

Scan monitoring

SFE

Supercritical-fluid extraction

SIM

Selected ion monitoring

SPE

Solid phase extraction

SPME

Solid phase microextraction

SRM

Selected reaction monitoring

STEMIT

Single-tube extraction with multisorbent impurity trapping

SWCNTs

Single-walled carbon nanotubes

TIC

Total ion current

TOF

Time of flight

UHPLC

Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography

WHO

World health organization

Notes

Acknowledgments

Author gratefully acknowledges the use of the facilities and services of the Center for Interdisciplinary Research at The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Poland, co-funded by the European Union from the European Regional Development Fund in the frame of the Operational Programme Development of Eastern Poland 2007–2013 (POPW.01.03.00-06-003/09-00). This work was supported by the Polish National Science Centre via the research project DEC-2017/01/X/ST4/00722.I also acknowledge assistance in preparation of tables provided by Ms Agata Surma.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Separation and Spectroscopic Method Applications, Center for Interdisciplinary ResearchThe John Paul II Catholic University of LublinLublinPoland

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