Skip to main content

Psoriasis

  • Reference work entry
  • First Online:
Atlas of Dermatology, Dermatopathology and Venereology

Abstract

Psoriasis is a common chronic recurrent inflammatory skin disease. It is often triggered by endogenous and/or exogenous stimuli and has a genetic predisposition. It can break out at any point in life and can affect 2–3% of the general population. Psoriasis is extremely polymorphic, defies a simple classification, and is histologically characterized by increased proliferation and impaired differentiation of keratinocytes. Systemic involvement is possible, the commonest being joint involvement.

In this chapter, we first discuss psoriasis in terms of general epidemiology, pathogenesis, genetics, and comorbidities associated with psoriasis and then we present in more detail the different subtypes of the condition.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Ahmad PS, Hassan I (2016) A comprehensive textbook of psoriasis. Jaypee, Philadelphia

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Altman K, Elston D (2017) Guttate psoriasis. Resource document. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1107850-overview#a10. Accessed 16 June 2017

  • Ashton R, Leppard B, Cooper H (2014) Differential diagnosis in dermatology, 4th edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 222–225

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Banerjee S, Ghosh S, Mandal RK (2015) A study of correlation between clinical and histopathological findings of erythroderma in North Bengal population. Indian J Dermatol 60(6):549–555

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Bolognia J, Shaffer J, Duncan K, Ko C (2014) Psoriasis. In: Dermatology essentials, 1st edn. Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 56–63

    Google Scholar 

  • Bonciani D, Bonciolini V, Antiga E, Verdelli A, Caproni M, Senetta R (2015) A case of rupioid psoriasis exacerbated by systemic glucocorticosteroids. Int J Dermatol 54(4):e100–e102

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Braegelmann J, D’Erme AM, Akmal S, Maier J, Braegelmann C, Wenzel J (2016) Interleukin-36γ (IL-1F9) identifies psoriasis among patients with erythroderma. Acta Derm Venereol 96(3):386–387

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Burhan E, Ozge A, Yalcin T (2017) Palmoplantar psoriasis. Clin Dermatol. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clindermatol.2016.09.004

  • César A, Cruz M, Mota A, Azevedo F (2016) Erythroderma. A clinical and etiological study of 103 patients. J Dermatol Case Rep 10(1):1–9

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Chandra A, Ray A, Senapati S, Chatterjee R (2015) Genetic and epigenetic basis of psoriasis pathogenesis. Mol Immunol 64(2):313–323

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Christophers E (2001) Psoriasis: epidemiology and clinical spectrum. Clin Exp Dermatol 26(4):314–320

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Chung HJ, Marley-Kemp D, Keller M (2014) Rupioid psoriasis and other skin diseases with rupioid manifestations. Cutis 94(3):119–121

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Du Vivier A (2002) Psoriasis. In: Atlas of clinical dermatology, 3rd edn. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp 69–84

    Google Scholar 

  • Egeberg A, Khalid U, Gislason GH, Mallbris L, Skov L, Hansen PR (2015) Association of psoriatic disease with uveitis: a Danish nationwide cohort study. JAMA Dermatol 151(11):1200–1205

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Espinoza LR, Cuellar ML (1998) Psoriatic arthritis and spondylitis: a clinical approach. In: Calin A, Taurog JD (eds) Spondylarthritides. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 97–111

    Google Scholar 

  • Feldman SR, Brown KL, Heald P (2008) “Coral reef” psoriasis: a marker of resistance to topical treatment. J Dermatolog Treat 19(5):257–258

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gao QQ, Xi MR, Yao Q (2013) Impetigo herpetiformis during pregnancy: a case report and literature review. Dermatology 226(1):35–40

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gottlieb AB (2009) Comorbidities in patients with psoriasis. Am J Med 122(12):1150.e1–1150.e9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Griffiths CEM, Christophers E, Barker JN, Chalmers RJ, Chimenti S, Krueger GG, Leonardi C, Menter A, Ortonne JP, Fry L (2007) A classification of psoriasis vulgaris according to phenotype. Br J Dermatol 156(2):258–262

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Grover C, Reddy BS, Uma Chaturvedi K (2005) Diagnosis of nail psoriasis: importance of biopsy and histopathology. Br J Dermatol 153(6):1153–1158

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Heidenreich R, Rocken M, Ghoreshi K (2009) Angiogenesis drives psoriasis pathogenesis. Int J Exp Pathol 90(3):232–248

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Itoi-Ochi S, Hayashi M, Yamaoka T, Kobayashi Y, Isei T, Shirasaka T, Katayama I (2017) Occult HIV infection in Japanese rupioid psoriasis. J Dermatol 44(7):e172–e173

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Koley S, Mandal RK, Chatterjee K, Hassan SM, Pathak S (2015) Elephantine psoriasis with papillomatosis and alternating hypogranulosis and hypergranulosis. Indian J Dermatol 60(3):264–267

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Langan SM, Seminara NM, Shin DB, Troxel AB, Kimmel SE, Mehta NN, Margolis DJ, Gelfand JM (2012) Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with psoriasis: a population based study in the United Kingdom. J Invest Dermatol 132(3 Pt 1):556–562

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lebwohl M, Heymann W, Berth-Jones J, Coulson I (2014) Treatment of skin disease, 4th edn. Elsevier Saunders, London/Philadelphia, pp 640–650

    Google Scholar 

  • Lehrhoff S, Pomeranz MK (2013) Specific dermatoses of pregnancy and their treatment. Dermatol Ther 26(4):274–284

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Li J, Zheng HY (2012) Erythroderma: a clinical and prognostic study. Dermatology 225(2):154–162

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lui H, Elston D (2017) Plaque psoriasis. Resource document. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1108072-overview. Accessed 16 June 2017

  • Meier M, Sheth PB (2009) Clinical spectrum and severity of psoriasis. Curr Probl Dermatol 38:1–20

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Menon R (2011) Ostraceous psoriasis presenting over distal extremities. Int J Dermatol 50(9):1115–1116

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Menter A, Stoff B (2011) History, epidemiology, and pathogenesis. In: Psoriasis, 2nd edn. Manson Publishing, London, pp 7–24

    Google Scholar 

  • Mistry N, Gupta A, Alavi A, Sibbald RG (2015) A review of the diagnosis and management of erythroderma (generalized red skin). Adv Skin Wound Care 28(5):228–236

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mugheddu C, Atzori L, Lappi A, Pau M, Murgia S, Rongioletti F (2017) Successful Secukinumab treatment of generalized pustular psoriasis and erythrodermic psoriasis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 31(9):e420–e421

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Murakami T, Ohtsuki M, Nakagawa H (2000) Rupioid psoriasis with arthropathy. Clin Exp Dermatol 25(5):409–412

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Naldi L, Gambini D (2007) The clinical spectrum of psoriasis. Clin Dermatol 25(6):510–518

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Nascimento BA, Carvalho AH, Dias CM, Lage TL, Carneiro CM, Bittencourt Mde J (2015) A case of generalized ostraceous psoriasis mimicking dermatitis neglecta. An Bras Dermatol 90(3 Suppl 1):197–199

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Nestle F (2009) Psoriasis. In: Gaspary A, Tyring S (eds) Clinical and basic immunodermatology. Springer, London, pp 207–216

    Google Scholar 

  • Oliveira Mde F, Rocha Bde O, Duarte GV (2015) Psoriasis: classical and emerging comorbidities. An Bras Dermatol 90(1):9–20

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pescitelli L, Dini V, Gisondi P, Loconsole F, Piaserico S, Piccirillo A, Stinco G, Errichetti E, Talamonti M, Tripo L, Volpi W, Prignano F (2015) Erythrodermic psoriasis treated with ustekinumab: an Italian multicenter retrospective analysis. J Dermatol Sci 78(2):149–151

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ram-Wolff C, Martin-Garcia N, Bensussan A, Bagot M, Ortonne N (2010) Histopathologic diagnosis of lymphomatous versus inflammatory erythroderma: a morphologic and phenotypic study on 47 skin biopsies. Am J Dermatopathol 32(8):755–763

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Raychaudhuri SK, Maverakis E, Raychaudhuri SP (2014) Diagnosis and classification of psoriasis. Autoimmun Rev 13(4–5):490–495

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Robinson A, Van Voorhees AS, Hsu S, Korman NJ, Lebwohl MG, Bebo BF Jr, Kalb RE (2012) Treatment of pustular psoriasis: from the medical board of the National Psoriasis Foundation. J Am Acad Dermatol 67(2):279–288

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rocken M, Schaller M, Sattler E, Burgdorf W (2012) Psoriasis. In: Color atlas of dermatology. Thieme, Stuttgart, pp 154–159

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Rosenbach M, Hsu S, Korman NJ, Lebwohl MG, Young M, Bebo BF Jr, Van Voorhees AS, National Psoriasis Foundation Medical Board (2010) Treatment of erythrodermic psoriasis: from the medical board of the National Psoriasis Foundation. J Am Acad Dermatol 62(4):655–662

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ruderman EM, Tambar S (2004) Psoriatic arthritis; prevalence, diagnosis and review of therapy for dermatologist. Dermatol Clin 22:477–486

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sheu JS, Divito SJ, Enamandram M, Merola JF (2016) Dapsone therapy for pustular psoriasis: case series and review of the literature. Dermatology 232(1):97–101

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Springate DA (2017) Incidence, prevalence and mortality of patients with psoriasis: a U.K. population-based cohort study. Br J Dermatol 176(3):650–658

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Syed ZU, Khachemoune A (2011) Inverse psoriasis: case presentation and review. Am J Clin Dermatol 12(2):143–146

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Tan ES, Chong WS, Tey HL (2012) Nail psoriasis: a review. Am J Clin Dermatol 13(6):375–388

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Tsoi LC, Stuart PE, Tian C, Gudjonsson JE, Das S, Zawistowski M, Ellinghaus E, Barker JN, Chandran V, Dand N, Callis Duffin K, Enerbäck C, Esko T, Franke A, Gladman DD, Hoffmann P, Kingo K, Kõks S, Krueger GG, Lim HW, Metspalu A, Mrowietz U, Mucha S, Rahman P, Reis A, Tejasvi T, Trembath R, Voorhees JJ, Weidinger S, Weichenthal M, Wen X, Eriksson N, Kang HM, Hinds DA, Nair RP, Abecasis GR, Elder JT (2017) Large scale meta-analysis characterizes genetic architecture for common psoriasis associated variants. Nat Commun 8:15382

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • van de Kerkhof PC, Franssen ME (2001) Psoriasis of the scalp. Diagnosis and management. Am J Clin Dermatol 2(3):159–165

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • van de Kerkhof PCM, Nestlé FO (2012) Psoriasis. In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Schaffer JV (eds) Dermatology, 3th edn. Elsevier, Philadelphia, pp 135–156

    Google Scholar 

  • Werner B, Brenner FM, Boer A (2008) Histopathological study of scalp psoriasis: peculiar features including gland atrophy. Am J Dermatopathol 30(2):93–100

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Zattra E, Belloni Fortina A, Peserico A, Alaibac M (2012) Erythroderma in the era of biological therapies. Eur J Dermatol 22(2):167–171

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Evmorfia Ladoyanni .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2022 Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this entry

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this entry

Ladoyanni, E., Arias, M.C., Fonseca Noriega, L., Verpetinske, I. (2022). Psoriasis. In: Smoller, B., Bagherani, N. (eds) Atlas of Dermatology, Dermatopathology and Venereology. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-53808-2_35

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-53808-2_35

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-53807-5

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-53808-2

  • eBook Packages: MedicineReference Module Medicine

Publish with us

Policies and ethics