Use of Resampling Procedures to Investigate Issues of Model Building and Its Stability
This chapter deals with issues in model building and the use of resampling procedures to assess model stability. Concentrating on the nonparametric bootstrap and taking material from five papers published between 1992 and 2015, procedures for variable selection, selection of the functional form for continuous variables, and treatment-covariate interactions are discussed. The methods are illustrated by using publicly available data from three randomized trials. General issues related to the selection of regression models as well as bootstrap procedures used as a pragmatic approach to gain further knowledge from clinical data are briefly outlined.
KeywordsBootstrap Continuous variables Variable selection Treatment interactions Functional form Stability investigations
A special thanks to Harald Binder, Anika Buchholz, Patrick Royston, and Martin Schumacher, the co-authors of the papers which were used as cornerstones for this article. We also thank Georg Heinze and Christine Wallisch for comments on an earlier version, Alethea Charlton and Jenny Lee for linguistic improvements, and Tim Haeussler, Martin Haslberger, and Andreas Ott for administrative assistance. Finally, we thank the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft who supported parts of the work with grants BO3139/4–3 to ALB and SA580/8–3 to WS and with grants to projects leading to some of the earlier papers.
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