Encyclopedia of Wildfires and Wildland-Urban Interface (WUI) Fires

Living Edition
| Editors: Samuel L. Manzello

Scaling

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-51727-8_62-1

Synonyms

Definition

Scaling is a concept or theoretical construct to achieve or find similarity between two different-sized phenomena. Scale modeling is an experimental technique to achieve scaling by seeking appropriate and approximate solutions to complex phenomena; it requires an identification of the physical laws underlying or governing the phenomena. Scaling is a unique thinking method which differs from a single research approach which seeks understanding of the single phenomenon of itself. The concept of the scaling’s relative comparison is based on a holistic approach, while that of single research is based on a deterministic/deductive approach.

Scale and Numerical Modeling

Scale modeling uses physical models having sizes either smaller or larger than that of the full-scale system (which is also called the prototype in technical literature); experiments are conducted using the scale models for the purpose of assessing the scaling...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access

References

  1. Adam BA, Akafuah NK, Finney MA, Forthofer J, Saito K (2014) A study of flame spread in engineering cardboard fuel beds part II: scaling law approach. In: Saito K, Ito A, Nakamura Y, Kuwana K (eds) Progress in scale modeling V2. Springer, Cham, pp 85–95Google Scholar
  2. Albini FA (1984) Wildland fires. Am Sci 72:590–597Google Scholar
  3. Byram GM, Nelson RM Jr (1970) The modeling of pulsating fires. Fire Technol 6:102–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Emori RI, Saito K (1983a) Model experiment of hazardous forest fire whirl. Fire Technol 18:319–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Emori RI, Saito K (1983b) A study of scaling laws on pool and crib fires. Combust Sci Technol 31:217–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Emori RI, Schuring DJ (1977) Scale models in engineering: fundamentals and applications. Pergamon, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Emori, RI, Iguchi, Y, Saito, K, Wichman, IS. (1988) Simplified scale modeling of turbulent flame spread with implication to wildland fires. In: Fire safety science–proceeding the second international symposium, pp 263–273Google Scholar
  8. Emori RI, Saito K, Sekimoto K (2005) Mokei Jikken no Riron to Ouyou in Japanese (scale modeling in engineering). Gihodo Pub, Tokyo, JapanGoogle Scholar
  9. Finney MA, Cohen JD, McAllister SS, Jolly W (2013) On the need for a theory of wildland fire spread. J Wildland Fire 22:25–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Finney MA, Cohen JD, Forthofer JM, McAllister SS, Gollner MJ, Gorham DJ, Saito K, Akafuah NK, Adam BA, English JD (2015) The role of buoyant flame dynamics in wildfire spread. Proc the Natl Acad Sci 112:9833–9838CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fons WL (1961) A steady-state technique for studying properties of free-burning wood fires. In: Bert WG (ed) The use of models in fire research, National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC, pp 217–234Google Scholar
  12. Forthofer JM, Goodrick SL (2011) Review of vortices in wildland fire. J Combustion 2011:1–14. Article ID 984363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kuwana K, Sekimoto K, Saito K, Williams FA (2008) Scaling fire whirls. Fire Safety J 43:252–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kuwana K, Sekimoto K, Saito K (2014) Scale-model experiment of wind-generated fire whirls. In: Saito K, Ito A, Nakamura Y, Kuwana K (eds) Progress in scale modeling volume II. Springer, Cham, pp 167–173Google Scholar
  15. Quintiere, JG (2017) Scaling realistic fire scenario. In: The eighth international symposium on scale modeling, PortlandGoogle Scholar
  16. Rothermel, RC (1972) A mathematical model for predicting fire spread in wildland fuels. USDA forest service research paper, INT-115, MissoulaGoogle Scholar
  17. Saito K, Williams FA (2015) Scale modeling in the age of high speed computation. In: Saito K, Ito A, Nakamura Y, Kuwana K (eds) Progress in scale modeling V2. Springer, Cham, pp 1–18Google Scholar
  18. Soma S (1988) A study on large scale turbulences created by strong wind in the downstream section of Mt. Fuji. A special report to The Ministry of Science and Technology and Meteorology Research Institute of Japan in JapaneseGoogle Scholar
  19. Soma S, Saito K (1991) Reconstruction of fire whirls using scale models. Combust Flame 86:269–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Spalding DB (1963) The art of partial modeling. Proc The Combustion Institute 9:833–843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Taylor GI (1961) Fire under the influence of natural convection. In: Bert WG (ed) The use of models in fire research, National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC, pp 10–32Google Scholar
  22. Thomas PH (1961) Some studies of burning fires using models. In: Bert WG (ed) The use of models in fire research, National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC, pp 150–185Google Scholar
  23. Williams FA (1969) Scaling mass fires. Fire Res Abstr Rev 11:1–22Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of KentuckyLexingtonUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Sayaka Suzuki
    • 1
  1. 1.National Research Institute of Fire and Disaster (NRIFD)TokyoJapan