Advertisement

A Horse of a Different Color? Reexamining International Students at Community Colleges in the USA and Canada

  • Jonathan Z. Friedman
Reference work entry
Part of the Springer International Handbooks of Education book series (SIHE)

Abstract

International students have become a growth area in community colleges in the USA and Canada. Broadly, this has been viewed as a microcosm of changes seen at all levels of higher education related to globalization. However, there are reasons to suggest that this phenomenon deserves greater attention. Community colleges occupy a distinct role in higher education systems, and their international students can also be viewed this way, as somewhat of a “horse of a different color” from their counterparts in universities. To be sure, international student mobility shares commonalities across tertiary providers, but the aim of this chapter is to highlight ways that the community college context generates unique conditions for international students worthy of further research. This is undertaken in this chapter by focusing on three lines of inquiry, pertaining to international students’ backgrounds, their academic and social experiences, and their pathways through and beyond these institutions. Throughout, examples are drawn from existing research in both the Canadian and American contexts, with some reference to informational interviews conducted with college personnel working in the two countries. Although further research might focus on articulating cross-national differences between these contexts in greater depth, the aim of this chapter is to draw attention to the transnational dimensions of this phenomenon. Paying more attention to international students in community colleges may not just improve these students’ experiences, but also shed more light on the course of internationalization as it has advanced in different tiers of higher education.

Keywords

International students Internationalization Differentiation Academic and social integration Equity 

References

  1. Anayah, Bernadette, and Linda Kuk. 2015. The growth of international student enrollment at Community Colleges and implications. Community College Journal of Research and Practice 39 (12): 1099–1110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrade, Maureen Snow. 2009. The effects of English language proficiency on adjustment to university life. International Multilingual Research Journal 3 (1): 16–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baker, David. 2014. The schooled society: The educational transformation of global culture. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Brandi, Clara, and Max Büge. 2014. A cartography of the new middle classes in developing and emerging countries. Bonn: Deutsches Institut für Entwicklunspolitik.Google Scholar
  5. Brint, Steven G., and Jerome Karabel. 1989. The diverted dream: Community Colleges and the promise of educational opportunity in America, 1900–1985. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Budd, Deborah, Andreea Serban, Dianne G. Van Hook, and Rosalind Latiner Raby. 2016. Addressing myths about international students. In International education at community colleges: Themes, practices, and case studies, ed. R.L. Raby and E.J. Valeau, 215–222. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Calder, Moira J., Solina Richter, Yuping Mao, Katharina Kovacs Burns, Ramadimetja S. Mogale, and Margaret Danko. 2016. International students attending Canadian universities: Their experiences with housing, finances, and other issues. Canadian Journal of Higher Education 46 (2): 92–110.Google Scholar
  8. Campbell, Heather, Michael G. Strawser, and Stephen George. 2016. Communication education and international audiences: Reflections on instructional challenges and pedagogical strategy. Journal of International Students 6 (2): 632–643.Google Scholar
  9. Canadian Bureau for International Education. 2014. A world of learning: Canada’s performance and potential in international education. Ottawa: CBIE.Google Scholar
  10. Davies, Scott, and Floyd M. Hammack. 2005. The channeling of student competition in higher education: Comparing Canada and the U.S. Journal of Higher Education 76 (1): 89–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Deil-Amen, Regina. 2011. Socio-academic integrative moments: Rethinking academic and social integration among two-year college students in career-related programs. Journal of Higher Education 82 (1): 54–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Deil-Amen, Regina. 2015. The “traditional” college student: A smaller and smaller minority and its implications for diversity and access institutions. In Remaking college: The changing ecology of higher education, ed. Michael W. Kirst and Mitchell L. Stevens, 134–165. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Farrugia, Christine A., Rajika Bhandari, and Patricia Chow. 2012. Open doors: Report on international educational exchange. New York: Institute of International Education.Google Scholar
  14. Freeland, Chrystia. 2012. Plutocrats: The rise of the new global super-rich and the fall of everyone else. New York: Penguin Press.Google Scholar
  15. Galletta, Anne. 2013. Mastering the semi-structured interview and beyond: From research design to analysis and publication. New York: New York University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Garson, Kyra. 2012. Ethical considerations for internationalization: Perspectives from global citizenship education. Ottawa: Canadian Bureau for International Education.Google Scholar
  17. Goldrick-Rab, Sara. 2006. Following their every move: An investigation of social-class differences in college pathways. Sociology of Education 79: 67–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hagedorn, Linda Serra, and Yi (Leaf) Zhang. 2013. International students in U.S. Community Colleges: Status, opportunities, and future. In 21st century business management: Understanding community colleges, ed. Levin, 53–67. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  19. Hu, Jiayi, and Linda Serra Hagedorn. 2013. Earning American college credits in China: New model of transfer college credit programs. Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in Education 2 (1): 4–17.Google Scholar
  20. Igarashi, Hiroki, and Hiro Saito. 2014. Cosmopolitanism as cultural capital: Exploring the intersection of globalization, education and stratification. Cultural Sociology 8 (3): 222–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Institute of International Education. 2015. Open doors data: Special reports: Community college data resource. Available from http://www.iie.org/Research-and-Publications/Open-Doors/Data/Community-College-Data-Resource/International-Students/International-Students-Total-2014-15.
  22. Lee, Jenny J., and Charles Rice. 2007. Welcome to America? International student perceptions of discrimination. Higher Education 53 (3): 381–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Levin, John S. 2005. The business culture of the Community college: Students as consumers; students as commodities. New Directions in Higher Education 2005 (129): 11–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mamiseishvili, Ketevan. 2012. Academic and social integration and persistence of international students at U.S. two-year institutions. Community College Journal of Research and Practice 36: 15–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Manns, Derrick. 2014. Redefining the role, scope, and mission of Community Colleges in an international context. Community College Journal of Research and Practice 38 (8): 705–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Miller, Sharon A. 2015. Ensuring social success: Assessing the factors that affect the social experiences of international students at a large, urban Community college in Texas. Capstone Collection 2747: 1–63.Google Scholar
  27. Misra, Ranjita, and Linda G. Castillo. 2004. Academic stress among college students: Comparison of American and international students. International Journal of Stress Management 2011 (2): 132–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mori, Sakurako (Chako). 2000. Addressing the mental health concerns of international students. Journal of Counseling and Development 78: 137–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nathan, Rebekah. 2005. My freshman year: What a professor learned by becoming a student. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  30. OECD. 2008. Education at a glance 2008: OECD indicators. Toronto: Council of Ministers of Education.Google Scholar
  31. Palmer, Yolanda Michelle. 2016. Student to scholar: Learning experiences of international students. Journal of International Students 6 (1): 216–240.Google Scholar
  32. Pascarella, Ernest T., and Patrick T. Terenzini. 2005. How college affects students: A third decade of research. Vol. 2. 2nd ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  33. Redden, Elizabeth. 2014. Northern exposure: Country steps up its recruitment of international students with a goal of attracting more skilled immigrants. Inside Higher Ed. Available from: https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2014/09/23/canada-push-international-students-and-immigrants.
  34. Robertson, Jennifer J. 2015. Student interest in international education as the Community college. Community College Journal of Research and Practice 39 (5): 473–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Schudde, Lauren, and Sara Goldrick-Rab. 2015. On second changes and stratification: How sociologists think about Community Colleges. Community College Review 43 (1): 27–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Skinkle, Rod, and Sheila Embleton. 2014. Comparing international student and institutional objectives at Canadian Colleges and universities: Implications for institutional strategy. Higher Education Management and Policy 24 (3): 37–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Smith, Rachel A., and Nigar G. Khawaja. 2011. A review of the acculturation experiences of international students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations 35: 699–713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Stein, Sharon, and Vanessa de Oliveira Andreotti. 2016. Cash, competition or charity: International students and the global imaginary. Higher Education 72 (2): 225–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Stevens, Mitchell L. 2015. The changing ecology of U.S. higher education. In Remaking college: The changing ecology of higher education, ed. Michael W. Kirst and Mitchell L. Stevens, 1–15. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Streitwieser, Bernhard, ed. 2014. Internationalisation of higher education and global mobility. Oxford, UK: Symposium Books.Google Scholar
  41. The Conference Board of Canada. 2016. College completion 2016 (cited 29 Sep 2016). Available from http://www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/details/education/college-completion.aspx.
  42. Waters, Johanna L. 2006. Geographies of cultural capital: Education, international migration and family strategies between Hong Kong and Canada. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 31 (2): 179–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wedding, Danny, James L. McCartney, and David E. Curry. 2009. Lessons relevant to psychologists who serve as mentors for international students. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 40 (2): 189–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Williams, Christina T., and Laura R. Johnson. 2011. Why can’t we be friends?: Multicultural attitudes and friendships with international students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations 35: 41–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Steinhardt School of Culture, Education and Human DevelopmentNew York UniversityNew York CityUSA

Personalised recommendations