Transcriptional Regulation of Hydrocarbon Efflux Pump Expression in Bacteria

  • Cauã Antunes Westmann
  • Luana de Fátima Alves
  • Tiago Cabral Borelli
  • Rafael Silva-Rocha
  • María-Eugenia Guazzaroni
Reference work entry
Part of the Handbook of Hydrocarbon and Lipid Microbiology book series (HHLM)


Efflux pumps were found to be the most efficient mechanism of hydrocarbon tolerance in several bacterial strains resistant to solvents and other toxic chemicals. This involves an energy-dependent process that ensures the active removal of toxic compounds from the bacterial cytoplasm to the external medium. In order to achieve the maximal response of the process, regulatory networks of RND efflux pumps (resistance-nodulation-cell division family of bacterial transporters) are complex and modulated by the simultaneous coordination of many transcription factors in response to perturbations and cellular states. Several studies in the literature report the identification and molecular characterization of regulatory genes of RND efflux pumps, acting as global or specific regulators, activating or repressing transcription. In this sense, the main objective of this chapter is to provide a general view of the regulatory networks used by bacteria to modulate the response to toxic hydrocarbons mediated by efflux pumps. We also explore conceptual properties that remain conserved in different regulatory systems and outline common principles of RND regulation in gram-negative bacteria.


Efflux pumps Transcriptional regulation Hydrocarbons Regulatory networks Bacteria 



This work was supported by the National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq 472893/2013-0 and 441833/2014-4) and by the Sao Paulo State Foundation (FAPESP, grant number 2015/04309-1 and 2012/21922-8). CAW and LFA are beneficiaries of CAPES fellowship. Authors have no conflict of interest to declare.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cauã Antunes Westmann
    • 1
  • Luana de Fátima Alves
    • 2
    • 3
  • Tiago Cabral Borelli
    • 2
  • Rafael Silva-Rocha
    • 1
  • María-Eugenia Guazzaroni
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.Departamento de Biologia CelularFMRP – University of São PauloRibeirão PretoBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de BiologiaFFCLRP – University of São PauloRibeirão PretoBrazil
  3. 3.Departamento de Bioquímica e ImunologiaFMRP – University of São PauloRibeirão PretoBrazil
  4. 4.Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão PretoUniversidade de São PauloRibeirão PretoBrazil

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