Strategies to Increase Bioavailability and Uptake of Hydrocarbons
The biodegradation of hydrocarbons in the environment is often slow due to restricted bioavailability. Research performed during the last 20 years has shown possible pathways to increase the bioavailability of hydrocarbons without necessarily increasing the risk to the environment. Pollutant solubilization through (bio)surfactants, microbial transport, and attachment to pollutant interfaces can increase bioavailability, which translates into an enhancement of biodegradation rates. These strategies can not only be integrated into optimized bioremediation protocols that lead to lower decontamination endpoints in soils and sediments but also help to improve biodegradation in other environmental contexts, such as wastewater treatment and natural attenuation.
This study was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (CGL2013-44554-R and CGL2016-77497-R), the Andalusian Government (RNM 2337), and the European Commission (LIFE15 ENV/IT/000396).
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