Functionalization and Modification of Hydrocarbon-Like Molecules Guided by Metagenomics: Enzymes Most Requested at the Industrial Scale for Chemical Synthesis as Study Cases
The end of the twentieth century has experienced a revolution in the life sciences and, specifically, in enzymology. In this sense, the relation between chemistry and biology is currently under a deep transformation influenced by the implementation of OMICS tools. We can now access uncultured bacteria, whose genomic material can further be a resource of enzymes for novel enzymology. Among enzymes of interest are esterases and lipases from the α/β-hydrolase fold superfamily, transaminases, and oxidoreductases such as aldo-keto reductases. These enzymes are the first-choice items from the toolbox for functionalization and modification of low-reactive hydrocarbon-like blocks, oils, and fats. Through a series of hydrolytic or synthetic reactions, they can be used for the economic and sustainable production of highly valuable customized and functionalized hydrocarbon-based materials. Through metagenomic studies, about 250 novel esterases and lipases, one β-transaminase, and about 60 alcohol dehydrogenases and aldo-keto reductases have been discovered and their properties described. Research on esterases, lipases, β-transaminases, and oxidoreductases from uncultivated bacteria has revealed unprecedented transformations. The study of their potential in the modification of about 200 different hydrocarbon-like molecules is analyzed herein. This chapter also highlights the catalog of the representative molecules whose functionalization and modification has been successfully achieved using esterases, lipases, β-transaminases, alcohol dehydrogenases, and aldo-keto reductases from uncultivated bacteria discovered through metagenomic approaches. Notably, these groups of enzymes are, at the industrial scale, the most desired means and tools for chemical synthesis.
This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program [Blue Growth: Unlocking the potential of Seas and Oceans] under grant agreement No . This work was further funded by the European Community project KILL-SPILL (FP7-KBBE-2012-312139) and grants PCIN-2014-107 and BIO2014-54494-R from the Spanish Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness. The present investigation was funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness, the UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) within the ERA NET-IB2 program, grant number ERA-IB-14-030. The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support provided by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). C. Coscolín thanks the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness for a PhD fellowship (Grant BES-2015-073829).
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