David Nadler: A Life of Congruence

  • William Pasmore
Living reference work entry


David Nadler was a scholar-turned-practitioner who left his mark on the field of organization development through his work with CEOs and his writing about organizational diagnosis, data feedback, organization design, transformation, and boards. The consulting firm he created, Delta Consulting, was the premier firm specializing in consulting to CEOs on matters related to their personal and organizational effectiveness. He is perhaps best remembered for creating, along with Michael Tushman, the congruence model, which serves as a guide for organizational diagnosis and design. However, his greatest impact was on those who knew him as clients, associates, and friends.


Congruence model Data feedback Organizational architecture Board effectiveness 


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Further Reading

  1. Conger, J. A., & Nadler, D. A. (2004). When CEOs step up to fail. MIT Sloan Management Review, 45(3), 50.Google Scholar
  2. Hambrick, D. C., Nadler, D. A., & Tushman, M. L. (1997). Navigating change: How CEOs, top teams and boards steer transformation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business Press.Google Scholar
  3. Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L. (1966). The social psychology of organizations. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  4. Lawler, E. E., Nadler, D., & Cammann, C. (1980). Organizational assessment: Perspectives on the measurement of organizational behavior and the quality of work life. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  5. Lawrence, P. R., & Lorsch, J. W. (1967). Organization and environment: Managing differentiation and integration. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Levinson, H., Molinari, J., & Spohn, A. G. (1972). Organizational diagnosis. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Lorsch, J., & McTague, E. (2016). Culture is not the culprit. Harvard Business Review, April, 2016.Google Scholar
  8. Nadler, D. A. (1977). Feedback and organization development: Using databased methods. Boston: Addison-Wesley Longman.Google Scholar
  9. Nadler, D. A. (1997). Champions of change: How CEOs and their companies are mastering the skills of radical change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  10. Nadler, D. A. (2004a). Building better boards. Harvard Business Review, 82(5), 102–105.Google Scholar
  11. Nadler, D. A. (2004b). What’s the board’s role in strategy development?: Engaging the board in corporate strategy. Strategy & Leadership, 32(5), 25–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Nadler, D. A. (2007). The CEO’s second act. Harvard Business Review, 85(1), 66–72.Google Scholar
  13. Nadler, D. A., & Lawler, E. E. (1983). Quality of work life: Perspectives and directions. Organizational Dynamics, 11(3), 20–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Nadler, D. A., & Spencer, J. (1998). Leading executive teams. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  15. Nadler, D. A., & Tushman, M. L. (1977). A congruence model for diagnosing organizational behavior. New York: Columbia University, Graduate School of Business.Google Scholar
  16. Nadler, D. A., & Tushman, M. L. (1980). A model for diagnosing organizational behavior. Organizational Dynamics, 9(2), 35–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Nadler, D. A., & Tushman, M. L. (1988). Strategic organization design: Concepts, tools & processes. Glenview: Scott Foresman & Co..Google Scholar
  18. Nadler, D. A., & Tushman, M. L. (1989). Organizational frame bending: Principles for managing reorientation. The Academy of Management Executive, 3(3), 194–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Nadler, D. A., & Tushman, M. L. (1990). Beyond the charismatic leader: Leadership and organizational change. California Management Review, 32(2), 77–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Nadler, D. A., & Tushman, M. L. (1997). Competing by design: The power of organizational architecture. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Nadler, D. A., & Tushman, M. L. (1999). The organization of the future: Strategic imperatives and core competencies for the 21st century. Organizational Dynamics, 28(1), 45–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nadler, D. A., Tushman, M. L., & Hatvany, N. G. (1982). Managing organizations: Readings and cases. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.Google Scholar
  23. Nadler, D. A., Gerstein, M. S., & Shaw, R. B. (1992). Organizational architecture: Designs for changing organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  24. Nadler, D. A., Shaw, R. B., & Walton, A. E. (1995). Discontinuous change: Leading organizational transformation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  25. Nadler, D. A., Behan, B. A., & Nadler, M. B. (Eds.). (2011). Building better boards: A blueprint for effective governance. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  26. Tushman, M. L., & Nadler, D. A. (1986). Organizing for innovation. California Management Review, 28(3), 74–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Teachers CollegeColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

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