Coastline changes (here defined as changes on the high-tide shoreline) can be mapped and measured on various coastal sectors over time scales ranging from a few hours or days (related to tidal cycles, weather events, earthquakes, or tsunamis) to long-term trends over decades or centuries.
Evidence of Coastline Change
Evidence of coastline changes can be obtained from comparisons of dated historical maps, charts, air photographs, and satellite imagery with the present coastal configuration. Such evidence is available on many coasts over the past century, but in some countries, such as Britain and Denmark, maps and charts surveyed around the beginning of the nineteenth century permit the determination of changes over longer periods: Houston and Dean (2014) used measurements of shoreline change on the east coast of Florida since the mid-1800s to demonstrate long-term beach accretion. In the Mediterranean region, and locally elsewhere, there is sporadic evidence of coastline...
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