Encyclopedia of Coastal Science

Living Edition
| Editors: Charles W. Finkl, Christopher Makowski


Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-48657-4_195-2


In the vernacular, “littoral” refers to a shore or coastal region from the Latin litus, shore. In the technical usage, “littoral” and its associated derivative nomenclature are variously defined primarily depending on the disciplinary context. Even within a discipline, the terms tend to be used with some elasticity and in a semi-quantitative sense due to the quantitative imprecision of boundaries defined by “high tide” or “low tide,” “ordinary surf,” etc. or by primary and secondary biotic transitions (Fig. 1).
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. American Geological Institute (1960) Dictionary of geological terms. Anchor Press Doubleday, Garden CityGoogle Scholar
  2. Clark JR (1992) Integrated management of coastal zones. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, FAQ Fisheries Technical paper 327Google Scholar
  3. Eisma D (1997) Intertidal deposits, river mouth, tidal flats and coastal lagoons. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  4. Ekman S (1935) Tiergeagraphie des Meeres. Akad. Verlagsgesellsch, LeipzipGoogle Scholar
  5. Fairbridge RW (ed) (1968) Encyclopedia of geomorphology. Reinhold Book Corporation, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Forbes E, Hanley S (1853) A history of British Mollusca and their shells. John van Voorst, LondonGoogle Scholar
  7. Hedgpeth JW (1957) Classification of marine environments. Geol Soc Am Mem 67(1):17–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Jackson J (1997) Glossary of geology, 4th edn. American Geological Institute, AlexandriaGoogle Scholar
  9. Johnson DW (1919) Shore processes and shoreline development (1965 facsimile). Hefner Publishing Co, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Kuenen PH (1950) Marine geology. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Lorenz JR (1863) Physikalische Verhaltnisse und Vertheilung der organismen in Quarnerischen Golfe. Kais. Kon. Hof. und Statdtsdr, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  12. Nijland W, Reshitnyk LY, Starzomski BM, Reynolds JD, Darimont CT, Nelson TA (2017) Deriving rich coastal morphology and shore zone classification from LIDAR terrain models. J Coast Res 33(4):949–958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Nybakken JW (1993) Marine biology: an ecological approach, 3rd edn. Harper Collins, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Pillsbury RW (1970) In: Grey P (ed) The encyclopedia of biological sciences, 2nd edn. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co, New York, pp 507–508Google Scholar
  15. Sallenger AH, Krabill WB, Swift RN, Brock J, List J, Hansen M, Holman RA, Manizades S, Sontag J, Meredith A, Morgan K, Ynkel JK, Frederick EB, Stockdon H (2003) Evaluation of airborne topographic lidar for quantifying beach changes. J Coast Res 19(1):125–133Google Scholar
  16. Sverdrup HV, Johnson MW, Fleming RH (1942) The ocean. Prentice-Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  17. Visser WA (1980) Geological nomenclature. Royal Geological and Mining Society of the Netherlands, GorinchemGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Marine and Atmospheric SciencesStony Brook UniversityStony BrookUSA