Encyclopedia of Coastal Science

Living Edition
| Editors: Charles W. Finkl, Christopher Makowski

Artificial Islands

  • Marcel J. F. Stive
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-48657-4_14-2

Definition

Islands are defined as a relatively small land surface, surrounded by water. The largest island, Greenland, has a surface, which is still four times smaller than that of the smallest continent, Australia. The total surface of the earth’s islands approximates 10 million km2, which is comparable to Europe’s total surface area.

It is common to distinguish between continental and oceanic islands. Continental islands are considered part of a continent when they are located on the associated continental shelf. Oceanic islands, in contrast, do not belong to a continental shelf. The majority of oceanic islands are of volcanic origin. Some oceanic islands (e.g., Madagascar, Greenland, Zealandia) could be considered as subcontinents, which have been separated from larger continents through tectonic processes.

All realizations of artificial or man-made islands as constructed so far are close to shores on relatively shallow water either in intertidal zones, in bays, on the shoreface, or...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Bibliography

  1. Kraus NC (1996) History and heritage of coastal engineering: a collection of papers on the history of coastal engineering. International conference on coastal engineering 1950–1996. American Society of Civil Engineers, p 601Google Scholar
  2. US Army Corps of Engineers (1984) Shore protection manual. Coastal Engineering Research Center, VicksburgGoogle Scholar
  3. Van de Ven GP (ed) (1993) Man made lowlands: history and water management and land reclamation in the Netherlands. Matrijs Publishers, UtrechtGoogle Scholar
  4. Van Veen J (1962) Dredge, drain, reclaim: the art of a nation. Nijhoff Publishers, The HagueGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Faculty Civil Engineering and GeosciencesDelft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands