The stage in human and nonhuman animal development through which a juvenile becomes a reproductively and behaviorally mature adult.
Adolescence is a developmental stage in an animal’s life history that is characterized by both reproductive and behavioral maturation. The terms “puberty” and “adolescence” are often used interchangeably as synonyms. However, it is more accurate to consider adolescence as the period in which an animal transitions into an adult that is reproductively, socially, and cognitively mature (Sisk and Foster 2004), encompassing puberty, which more precisely is the process through which an individual becomes reproductively mature. Specialists in this area argue that reproductive (gonadal) development and behavioral development are distinct processes, driven by separate neurobiological mechanisms, that are linked by interactions between gonadal steroid hormones and the nervous system (Sisk and Foster 2004).
- Chaby, L. E., Cavigelli, S. A., White, A., Wang, K., & Braithwaite, V. A. (2013). Long-term changes in cognitive bias and coping response as a result of chronic unpredictable stress during adolescence. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 328. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2013.00328.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Gunnar, M. R., Wewerka, S., Frenn, K., Long, J. D., & Griggs, C. (2009). Developmental changes in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal activity over the transition to adolescence: Normative changes and associations with puberty. Development and Psychopathology, 21(1), 69–85. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579409000054.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Irwig, M. S., Fraley, G. S., Smith, J. T., Acohido, B. V., Popa, S. M., Cunningham, M. J., … Steiner, R. A. (2004). Kisspeptin Activation of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Neurons and Regulation of KiSS-1 mRNA in the Male Rat. Neuroendocrinology, 80(4), 264–272. https://doi.org/10.1159/000083140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- McCormick, C. M., & Mathews, I. Z. (2010). Adolescent development, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function, and programming of adult learning and memory. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 34(5), 756–765. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2009.09.019.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nelson, E. E., Leibenluft, E., McClure, E. B., & Pine, D. S. (2005). The social re-orientation of adolescence: A neuroscience perspective on the process and its relation to psychopathology. Psychological Medicine, 35(2), 163–174. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15841674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pautassi, R. M., Myers, M., Spear, L. P., Molina, J. C., & Spear, N. E. (2008). Adolescent but not adult rats exhibit ethanol-mediated appetitive second-order conditioning. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 32(11), 2016–2027. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2008.00789.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Schulz, K. M., Richardson, H. N., Zehr, J. L., Osetek, A. J., Menard, T. A., & Sisk, C. L. (2004). Gonadal hormones masculinize and defeminize reproductive behaviors during puberty in the male Syrian hamster. Hormones and Behavior, 45(4), 242–249. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2003.12.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stroud, L. R., Foster, E., Papandonatos, G. D., Handwerger, K., Granger, D. A., Kivlighan, K. T., & Niaura, R. (2009). Stress response and the adolescent transition: Performance versus peer rejection stressors. Development and Psychopathology, 21(1), 47–68. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579409000042.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar