Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior

Living Edition
| Editors: Jennifer Vonk, Todd Shackelford

Hormones and Behavior

  • Ashutosh Kumar
  • Pavan Kumar
  • Muneeb A. Faiq
  • Vivek K. Sharma
  • Kishore Sesham
  • Maheswari Kulandhasamy
Living reference work entry

Latest version View entry history

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-47829-6_476-2


Hormones are secretions from the ductless glands (known as endocrine glands) and specialized cells in the specific animal organs, which circulate through blood to reach target destinations in specific parts of the body (including the brain) for action.

Modern view for the hormones is that a hormone is any substance that acts at the cellular level to initiate, stop, or modulate a cellular process, and they include all chemical messengers synthesized by the body that act by binding with high affinity to target cells within the same individual. Some scientists also consider pheromones as hormones. Pheromones are those molecules which act in a similar way as hormones – leave the body of one individual to act on another individual. The site of action can be nearby or at a distant target.

Hormones can act via paracrine, autocrine, or intracrine mechanisms. A hormone may act both locally and at distant target sites traveling through the bloodstream. To enter the brain, hormones...

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ashutosh Kumar
    • 1
    • 2
  • Pavan Kumar
    • 2
  • Muneeb A. Faiq
    • 6
  • Vivek K. Sharma
    • 3
    • 5
  • Kishore Sesham
    • 2
  • Maheswari Kulandhasamy
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of AnatomyAll India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS)PatnaIndia
  2. 2.Department of AnatomyAll India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS)New DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Department of PhysiologyGovernment Institute of Medical Sciences (GIMS)Greater NoidaIndia
  4. 4.Department of Biochemistry,Maulana Azad Medical College (MAMC)New DelhiIndia
  5. 5.Department of PhysiologyJawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER)PondicherryIndia
  6. 6.Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic SciencesAll India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS)New DelhiIndia

Section editors and affiliations

  • David Hanbury
    • 1
  1. 1.Averett UniversityDanvilleUSA