Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior

Living Edition
| Editors: Jennifer Vonk, Todd Shackelford


Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-47829-6_392-1



Adaptation can be defined as alterations/changes in physiological, behavioral, and structural characters of an individual in response to their environment.


Adaptation consists of Latin words ad (“toward”) plus aptus (“fit for some role”); any structural, physiological, or behavioral character that increases organism’s survival fitness as well as their reproduction ability in existing environment. In other words, adaptation is the ability of any living organism to survive and reproduce successfully under the existing environment.

Adapted organisms are more fit because they are (1) able to secure food and nutrients; (2) able to obtain air and water; (3) secure spaces in niche; (4) cope with physical conditions such as temperature, light, and heat; (5) defend themselves from their predators; (6) reproduce and rear offspring; and (7) quickly...

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BotanyUniversity College of Science, Mohanlal Sukhadia UniversityUdaipurIndia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Khalil Iskarous
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA