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Same/Different Learning

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Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior

Introduction

The major goal of comparative cognition is to compare cognition across species. For many years, a species’ cognition was rated (compared) on a hierarchy of cognitive-task difficulty with ability to learn abstract concepts typically at the top. Abstract concepts transcend individual features of the stimuli and depend instead on the relationship between stimuli, for example, judging two pictures as being the same or different. Such judgments can become an abstract concept when they are accurately made to novel stimuli. Same/different abstract-concept learning has a special role in abstract cognitive learning during human development (e.g., learning equivalence and conservation relationships) and provides the basis for more complex strings of equivalent operations involved in novel sentence construction and novel sequences of mathematical operations (e.g., Chen and Mo 2004; Smith et al. 1992). This generalization of equivalence carries forward into adult years, apparently...

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Correspondence to Anthony A. Wright .

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Wright, A.A., Katz, J.S., Kelly, D.M. (2018). Same/Different Learning. In: Vonk, J., Shackelford, T. (eds) Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-47829-6_1510-1

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-47829-6_1510-1

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