Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior

Living Edition
| Editors: Jennifer Vonk, Todd Shackelford


  • Ali Nabavizadeh
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-47829-6_1174-1


Ornithischian dinosaurs (Fig. 1) form an extinct group of diverse megaherbivores that dominated the Mesozoic Era roughly between 200 million and 66 million years ago. This extensive clade includes the plated and spiked stegosaurs; the armored, spiked, and sometimes club-tailed ankylosaurs; the massive duckbilled hadrosaurian ornithopods; the thickly dome-headed pachycephalosaurs; the elaborately horned and frilled ceratopsians; and all of their respective basal relatives. Distinguishing features used to characterize ornithischians among other dinosaurs include a unique, midline jaw bone known as the predentary (forming the bottom half of the beak), a medially inset tooth row in most cases, and a caudally oriented pubis (a hip bone), among many others (Weishampel 2004).
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cooper Medical School of Rowan UniversityCamdenUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Marieke Cassia Gartner
    • 1
  1. 1.Philadelphia ZooPhiladelphiaUSA