Diagnosis of Stage IV Melanoma

  • Ahmad A. TarhiniEmail author
  • Sanjiv S. Agarwala
  • Arjun Khunger
  • Richard L. Wahl
  • Charles M. Balch
Living reference work entry


The development of distant metastasis – stage IV disease – is associated with a dramatic decrease in the survival rate of patients who have melanoma. As seen with other tumor types, the success of treatment mainly depends on early diagnosis as well as initiation of optimal treatment. In the past decade, there has been dramatic expansion of the treatment armamentarium for patients with advanced melanoma with the development of two most important novel therapeutic strategies, immune checkpoint inhibitors and selective kinase inhibitors, which have led to significant improvement in survival and prognosis of metastatic melanoma patients. In this chapter, we provide a comprehensive overview of clinical aspects of the diagnosis of stage IV melanoma, including the timing and pattern of metastasis, clinical and imaging evaluation of distant metastases, and clinical application of biomarkers for diagnosis of metastatic melanoma. Also, various common and uncommon sites of metastasis of cutaneous melanoma are elucidated in detail.


Melanoma Metastatic melanoma Organ-specific Radiology Biomarkers Brain metastasis 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmad A. Tarhini
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sanjiv S. Agarwala
    • 2
  • Arjun Khunger
    • 3
  • Richard L. Wahl
    • 4
  • Charles M. Balch
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Hematology and Medical OncologyEmory University School of Medicine, Winship Comprehensive Cancer CenterAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Medical OncologySt Luke’s University Hospital and Health NetworkEastonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Hematology and OncologyTaussig Cancer Center, Cleveland ClinicClevelandUSA
  4. 4.Mallinckrodt Institute of RadiologyWashington University School of MedicineSt. LouisUSA
  5. 5.Department of Surgical OncologyUniversity of Texas MD Anderson Cancer CenterHoustonUSA

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