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Drugs and Other Substances Interfering with Thyroid Function

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Thyroid Diseases

Abstract

Several drugs and supplements may interfere, at different levels, with regulation of thyroid function. Some drugs may also cause thyroid autoimmunity. This chapter reviews drugs that significantly affect thyroid function. Glucocorticoids, dopamine agonists, somatostatin analogs, and retinoids inhibit TSH secretion. Lithium, tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), antiepileptics, rifampin, metformin, and amiodarone mainly affect directly thyroid function. Interferon-α and antiretroviral drugs may have several effects, including inducing thyroid autoimmunity. The heterogeneous adverse effects induced by antineoplastic agents (cytotoxic and novel anticancer agents, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, bexarotene- and iodine-based cancer therapies, and radioimmunotherapies) will be highlighted. Immunoregulatory drugs (IL-2, denileukin diftitox, thalidomide and lenalidomide, IFN-α, alemtuzumab) and immune checkpoint inhibitors (anti-CTLA4 and anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies) mainly promote thyroid autoimmunity. The effects of endocrine disruptors and nutraceuticals and over-the-counter products (selenium, L-carnitine, thyroid hormones, iodine, and biotin) will also be discussed. The last part of the chapter concerns drugs that interfere with levothyroxine (LT4) absorption.

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Montanelli, L., Benvenga, S., Hegedüs, L., Vitti, P., Latrofa, F., Duntas, L.H. (2018). Drugs and Other Substances Interfering with Thyroid Function. In: Vitti, P., Hegedüs, L. (eds) Thyroid Diseases. Endocrinology. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-45013-1_27

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