Calpain-Calpastatin System in Lymphoid Neoplasm of the Aged

  • Jacek M. Witkowski
  • Anna Mikosik
  • Ewa Bryl
  • Tamas Fulop
Living reference work entry


Two ubiquitous calpains (extremely calcium-dependent, neutral, cytoplasmic cysteine proteases) and their endogenous inhibitor – calpastatin – form the calpain-calpastatin system (CCS). Activity of the CCS is implicated in the processes of proliferation and apoptosis of many human cell types. We have demonstrated a necessity of resting activity of the CCS for adequate proliferative response of nonmalignant T lymphocytes, as well as the reduction of amounts and activities of the CCS proteases in the elderly. On the other hand, we have also shown that hyperactivity of the CCS protects chronic B-cell leukemia (B-CLL) cells from apoptosis and possibly induces their excessive proliferation. As the B-CLL is the typical leukemia of old age, and relatively frequently transforms into the tumor (lymphoma) growth, it was interesting to analyze the existing data on overall role of the CCS in the processes of proliferation, apoptosis, aging, and malignant transformation of human lymphoid cells. This chapter summarizes these data.


Aging Lymphocytes Lymphoid malignancy Leukemia Lymphoma Cell proliferation Apoptosis Limited proteolysis Calpain Calpastatin 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jacek M. Witkowski
    • 1
  • Anna Mikosik
    • 1
  • Ewa Bryl
    • 2
  • Tamas Fulop
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PathophysiologyMedical University of GdańskGdańskPoland
  2. 2.Department of Pathology and Experimental RheumatologyMedical University of GdańskGdańskPoland
  3. 3.Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, Centre for Aging ResearchUniversity of SherbrookeQCCanada

Section editors and affiliations

  • Tamas Fulop
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, Research Center on AgingUniversité de SherbrookeQCCanada

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