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Metastatic Bladder Cancer Disease and Its Treatment

  • Anja Lorch
  • Günter Niegisch
Living reference work entry

Abstract

Approximately one third of patients present with muscle-invasive bladder cancer with 50% developing progression after radical cystectomy and up to 15% having metastatic disease upfront. Several independent clinical prognostic factors for first- and for second-line chemotherapy have been identified to predict survival. Since 1980 standard first-line treatment contains a platinum-based combination chemotherapy. In the second-line setting, no clearly established regimen with substantial prolonged survival existed for a long period of time. Quite recently, based on compelling phase II and phase III data with simultaneously favorable safety profiles, several checkpoint inhibitors (PD-1/ PD-L1) have been FDA and EMA approved not only for patients progressing after first-line chemotherapy but also for upfront therapy in platinum-unfit patients.

Notes

Conflicts of Interest

Anja Lorch: advisory role: BMS, Novartis, Ipsen, AstraZeneca

Günter Niegisch: travel expenses: Roche Pharma AG, Pfizer Pharma AG; advisory role: Roche Pharma AG, BMS Health; reserach grant: 4SC AG

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Urology, Genitourinary Medical Oncology, Medical FacultyHeinrich-Heine-UniversityDüsseldorfGermany
  2. 2.Department of Urology, Medical FacultyHeinrich-Heine-UniversityDüsseldorfGermany

Section editors and affiliations

  • Wolfgang Otto
    • 1
  • Shahrokh F. Shariat
    • 2
  1. 1.der Universität RegensburgOberarzt der Klinik für UrologieRegensburgGermany
  2. 2.Departement of UrologyWeill Cornell Medical CenterNew YorkUSA

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