Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract

2017 Edition
| Editors: Fátima Carneiro, Paula Chaves, Arzu Ensari

Intestinal Metaplasia

  • Rita Barros
  • Raquel AlmeidaEmail author
Reference work entry




Metaplasia is a reversible change in which one adult cell type (epithelial or mesenchymal) is replaced by another adult cell type. Intestinal metaplasia (IM) of the stomach is a relatively frequent preneoplastic lesion resulting from the replacement of the gastric epithelium by an intestinal-like epithelium as a result of chronic injury. Colonization of the gastric mucosa with  Helicobacter pylori is the main risk factor for IM and gastric cancer development, and it has been categorized by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a type I carcinogen. This is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans with a prevalence that reaches 90% in many developing countries and a lower prevalence in developed ones that, nevertheless, varies between 30% and 50%.

IM appears following H. pyloriinfection and chronic inflammation, as part of a multistep precancerous process that was first described in 1975, by Pelayo Correa, based on observations in...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Further Reading

  1. Capelle, L. G., de Vries, A. C., Haringsma, J., Ter Borg, F., de Vries, R. A., Bruno, M. J., van Dekken, H., Meijer, J., van Grieken, N. C., & Kuipers, E. J. (2010). The staging of gastritis with the OLGA system by using intestinal metaplasia as an accurate alternative for atrophic gastritis. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, 71, 1150–1158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Correa, P., Piazuelo, M. B., & Wilson, K. T. (2010). Pathology of gastric intestinal metaplasia: Clinical implications. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 105, 493–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. de Vries, A. C., van Grieken, N. C., Looman, C. W., Casparie, M. K., de Vries, E., Meijer, G. A., & Kuipers, E. J. (2008). Gastric cancer risk in patients with premalignant gastric lesions: A nationwide cohort study in the Netherlands. Gastroenterology, 134, 945–952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Mesquita, P., Almeida, R., Lunet, N., Reis, C. A., Silva, L. F., Serpa, J., Van Seuningen, I., Barros, H., & David, L. (2006). Metaplasia–a transdifferentiation process that facilitates cancer development: The model of gastric intestinal metaplasia. Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis, 12, 3–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Reis, C. A., David, L., Correa, P., Carneiro, F., de Bolós, C., Garcia, E., Mandel, U., Clausen, H., & Sobrinho-Simões, M. (1999). Intestinal metaplasia of human stomach displays distinct patterns of mucin (MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC6) expression. Cancer Research, 59, 1003–1007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Uemura, N., Okamoto, S., Yamamoto, S., Matsumura, N., Yamaguchi, S., Yamakido, M., Taniyama, K., Sasaki, N., & Schlemper, R. J. (2001). Helicobacter pylori infection and the development of gastric cancer. The New England Journal of Medicine, 345, 784–789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology of the University of Porto (IPATIMUP)PortoPortugal
  2. 2.Faculty of Medicine, University of PortoPortoPortugal