Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract

2017 Edition
| Editors: Fátima Carneiro, Paula Chaves, Arzu Ensari

Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor, Upper Gastrointestinal Tract

  • José Manuel LopesEmail author
Reference work entry


Inflammatory myofibroblastoma; Inflammatory myofibrohistiocytic proliferation; Inflammatory pseudotumor; Plasma cell granuloma; Plasma cell pseudotumor


The inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor comprises spindle or polygonal fibroblast-/myofibroblast-type cells, which often express anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), and stromal lymphoplasmacytic inflammatory cells. Some authors have differentiated inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors from reactive pseudosarcomatous processes and other neoplasms based on ALK immunoreactivity or evidence of the ALK translocation, but many consider ALK-negative inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors a valid diagnostic category.

Clinical Features

  • Incidence

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) are rare in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract.

  • Age

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors mean age (range) is 41 years (0.75–84) (Makhlouf and Sobin 2002).

  • Sex

    The male to female ratio of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors is 1.1:1 (Makhlouf and...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Coffin, C. M., Watterson, J., Priest, J. P., & Dehner, L.-P. (1995). Extrapulmonary inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (inflammatory pseudotumor). A clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 84 cases. The American Journal of Surgical Pathology, 19, 859–872.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Fisher, C. (2011). Immunohistochemistry in diagnosis of soft tissue tumours. Histopathology, 58, 1001–1012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Kelleher, F. C., & McDermott, R. (2010). The emerging pathogenic and therapeutic importance of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene. European Journal of Cancer, 46(13), 2357–2368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Makhlouf, H. R., & Sobin, L. H. (2002). Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (inflammatory pseudotumors) of the gastrointestinal tract: How closely are they related to inflammatory fibroid polyps? Human Pathology, 33, 307–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Patel, A. S., Murphy, K. M., Hawkins, A. L., Cohen, J. S., Long, P. P., Perlman, E. J., & Griffin, C. A. (2007). RANBP2 and CLTC are involved in ALK rearrangements in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors. Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics, 176, 107–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Medicine of the University of Porto and Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology of the University of PortoPortoPortugal