Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract

2017 Edition
| Editors: Fátima Carneiro, Paula Chaves, Arzu Ensari

Hiatus Hernia, Acquired, Paraesophageal (Rolling)

  • Ana LagosEmail author
  • Miguel Serrano
  • Susana Mão de Ferro
Reference work entry


Hiatal hernia; Rolling hiatus hernia; Type II hiatus hernia


A hernia is a protrusion of the abdominal cavity beyond its fascial or muscular walls through fascial or muscular openings or defects.

The distal end of the esophagus, which is normally located in the abdominal cavity, is anchored to the diaphragm by the phrenoesophageal membrane, formed by the fused endothoracic and endoabdominal fascia. This elastic membrane inserts circumferentially into the esophageal musculature, very close to the squamocolumnar junction which resides within the diaphragmatic hiatus. However, these attachments are not firm and a limited longitudinal movement of the esophagus may still occur without alteration of the normal anatomy of the diaphragmatic hiatus.

In hiatal hernia, the upper portion of the stomach (rarely, the entire stomach, a segment of the colon, or the spleen) herniates through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm into the thorax.

Depending on the degree of failure of...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Jeyarajah, D. R., & Harford, W. V. (2010). Abdominal hernias and gastric volvulus. In Sleisenger and Fortrans’s gastrointestinal and liver disease (pp. 379–395). Philadelphia: Saunders/Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Mori, T., Nagao, G., Sugiyama, M. (2012). Paraesophageal hernia repair. Annals of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. Scholar
  3. Preiser, C. M. F, Noffsinger, A., Stemmermann, G. et al. The nonneoplastic stomach. In Gastrointestinal pathology an atlas and text (pp. 135–231). Lippincott.Google Scholar
  4. Schieman, C., & Grondin, S. C. (2009). Paraesophageal hernia: clinical presentation, evaluation, and management controversies. Thoracic Surgery Clinics, 19, 473–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ana Lagos
    • 1
    Email author
  • Miguel Serrano
    • 1
  • Susana Mão de Ferro
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GastroenterologyIPOLFG, E.P.E.LisbonPortugal