Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract

2017 Edition
| Editors: Fátima Carneiro, Paula Chaves, Arzu Ensari

Gastropathy, Portal Hypertension

  • Andreia AlbuquerqueEmail author
Reference work entry


Congestive gastropathy; PHG; Portal hypertensive gastropathy


In 1985, MacCormack was the first to describe the condition “congestive gastropathy.” Actually, the term “portal hypertensive gastropathy” (PHG) is more frequently used and defines a wide spectrum of diffuse macroscopic lesions that appear in the gastric mucosa of patients with portal hypertension and therefore is commonly found in association to cirrhosis, but can also be found in non-cirrhotic causes of portal hypertension.

The pathogenesis is not well known but venous congestion and increased gastric blood flow in the upper stomach seems to be important factors for its development. It does not seem to be related with acid secretion or Helicobacter pylori presence in the gastric mucosa. Portal hypertension is a prerequisite for the development of PHG and it is defined by an increase in portal pressure gradient to a threshold above approximately 10 mmHg.

Typically, PHG displays a snake-skin mosaic pattern...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Further Reading

  1. McCormack, T. T., Sims, J., Eyre-Brook, I., et al. (1985). Gastric lesions in portal hypertension: Inflammatory gastritis or congestive gastropathy? Gut, 26, 1226–1232.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Piqué, J. M. (1997). Portal hypertensive gastropathy. Baillière’s Clinical Gastroenterology, 11, 257–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Primignani, M., Carpinelli, L., Preatoni, P., et al. (2000). Natural history of portal hypertensive gastropathy in patients with liver cirrhosis. The New Italian Endoscopic Club for the study and treatment of esophageal varices (NIEC). Gastroenterology, 119, 181–187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ripoll, C., & Garcia-Tsao, G. (2011). The management of portal hypertensive gastropathy and gastric antral vascular ectasia. Digestive and Liver Disease, 43, 345–351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Thuluvath, P. J., & Yoo, H. Y. (2002). Portal hypertensive gastropathy. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 97, 2973–2978.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Serviço de Gastrenterologia, Centro Hospitalar de São JoãoPortoPortugal