Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract

2017 Edition
| Editors: Fátima Carneiro, Paula Chaves, Arzu Ensari

Chronic Gastritis

  • Chella R. S. van der PostEmail author
  • Fátima Carneiro
Reference work entry


Campylobacter pylori gastritis; Chronic antral gastritis; Diffuse antral gastritis; Helicobacter pylori gastritis; Multifocal gastritis; Superficial gastritis; Type B gastritis


Chronic gastritis refers to chronic inflammatory diseases of the stomach, which range from mild superficial involvement of the gastric mucosa to severe atrophy. Generally, chronic atrophic gastritis is divided into Autoimmune Metaplastic Atrophic Gastritis (AMAG) or type A gastritis and Environmental Metaplastic Atrophic Gastritis (EMAG) or type B gastritis mostly caused by Helicobacter pylori infection. This entry discusses especially EMAG/chronic H. pylori associated gastritis; for AMAG, the reader is referred to the entry  “autoimmune gastritis.” H. pylori gastritis is a chronic infectious form of gastritis caused by spiral, flagellated gram-negative rods and characterized by superficial chronic active gastritis.

Clinical Features

H. pyloriinfection is probably the most common cause of...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Capelle, L. G., de Vries, A. C., Haringsma, J., Ter Borg, F., de Vries, R. A., Bruno, M. J., et al. (2010). The staging of gastritis with the OLGA system by using intestinal metaplasia as an accurate alternative for atrophic gastritis. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, 71, 1150–1158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Dixon, M. F., Genta, R. M., Yardley, J. H., & Correa, P. (1996). Classification and grading of gastritis. The updated Sydney System. International Workshop on the Histopathology of Gastritis, Houston 1994. The American Journal of Surgical Pathology, 20(10), 1161–1181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Odze, R. D., & Goldblum, J. R. (2009). Surgical pathology of the GI tract, liver, biliary tract, and pancreas (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders/Elsevier.Google Scholar
  4. Rocha, G. A., Queiroz, D. M., Mendes, E. N., Barbosa, A. J., Lima Junior, G. F., & Oliveira, C. A. (1991). Helicobacter pylori acute gastritis: Histological, endoscopical, clinical, and therapeutic features. The American Journal of Gastroenterology, 86(11), 1592–1595.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Rugge, M., & Genta, R. M. (2005). Staging and grading of chronic gastritis. Human Pathology, 36(3), 228–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Rugge, M., Correa, P., Di Mario, F., El-Omar, E., Fiocca, R., Geboes, K., et al. (2008). OLGA staging for gastritis: A tutorial. Digestive and Liver Disease, 40, 650–658.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Sipponen, P. (2001). Update on the pathologic approach to the diagnosis of gastritis, gastric atrophy, and Helicobacter pylori and its sequelae. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 32(3), 196–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chella R. S. van der Post
    • 1
    Email author
  • Fátima Carneiro
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PathologyRadboud University Medical CenterNijmegenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Faculty of Medicine of Porto University, Centro Hospitalar São João and Ipatimup/i3SPortoPortugal