Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract

2017 Edition
| Editors: Fátima Carneiro, Paula Chaves, Arzu Ensari

Infectious Esophagitis

  • Paula Borralho NunesEmail author
Reference work entry


Infective esophagitis


Infectious esophagitis is a relatively uncommon condition as normal esophageal mucosa is remarkably resistant to infection. Invasive esophageal infections can present in association with distinct clinical conditions but occur with few exceptions in immunocompromised patients, specifically those with AIDS, leukemia, lymphoma, and other cancers. Although immunosuppression from any condition or therapy can potentially lead to esophageal infections, the individuals at highest risk for infectious esophagitis are those with HIV infection and low CD4 counts and leukemia or lymphoma (especially during chemotherapy) (Mulhall and Wong 2003).

Some significant risk factors are iatrogenic, with some cases presenting in the context of chemotherapy, broad-spectrum antibiotics, immunomodulators, and high-dose corticosteroid administration. There are though important risk factors other than immunosuppression. The prevention of esophageal pathogen adherence is...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Alexander, J. A., Brouillette, D. E., & Chien, M. C. (1988). Infectious esophagitis following liver and renal transplantation. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 33(9), 1121–1126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Fenoglio-Preiser, C. M., Noffsinger, A. E., Stemmermann, G. N., & Lantz, P. E. (1999). The Nonneoplastic esophagus. In Gastrointestinal pathology: An atlas and text (2nd ed., pp. 31–91). Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven.Google Scholar
  3. Lewin-Smith, M. R., Klassen, M. K., Frankel, S. S., et al. (1998). Pathology of human immunodeficiency virus infection: Infectious conditions. Annals of Diagnostic Pathology, 2(3), 181–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Mulhall, B. P., & Wong, R. K. H. (2003). Infectious esophagitis. Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology, 6(1), 55–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Trappe, R., Pohl, H., Forberger, A., et al. (2007). Transpl Acute esophageal necrosis (black esophagus) in the renal transplant recipient: Manifestation of primary cytomegalovirus infection. Infectious Diseases, 9(1), 42–45.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hospital Cuf Descobertas and Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Saúde de Lisboa and Instituto de Anatomia Patológica, Faculdade de Medicina daUniversidade de LisboaLisboaPortugal