Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract

2017 Edition
| Editors: Fátima Carneiro, Paula Chaves, Arzu Ensari

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)

  • Alexandra ThielEmail author
  • Ari Ristimäki
Reference work entry


Acetylsalicylic acid; Analgesics; Antipyretics; Aspirin; Cancer; Coxibs; Cyclooxygenase (COX); Diseases; Drugs; Duodenal ulcer; Eicosanoids; Enzymes; Erosion; Gastric ulcer; Helicobacter (H.) pylori infection; Ibuprofen; Mediators; Mucosal injury peptic ulcer disease; Naproxen; Nonselective COX inhibitors; Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); Painkillers; Prostacyclin (PGI2); Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase; Prostaglandins (PGs); Prostanoids, thromboxane (TXA2); Selective COX-2 inhibitors


Eicosanoids are locally acting signal transducers that are synthesized by oxidation of 20 carbon essential fatty acids, of which arachidonic acid is the most important one. Two distinct enzyme systems produce eicosanoids, of which cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX, also known as prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase) and subsequent action of prostaglandin synthases produce prostanoids, i.e., prostaglandins (PGs), prostacyclin (PGI2), and thromboxane (TXA2). Synthesis of...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Dinis-Ribeiro, M., Areia, M., de Vries, A. C., Marcos-Pinto, R., Monteiro-Soares, M., O’Connor, A., Pereira, C., Pimentel-Nunes, P., Correia, R., Ensari, A., Dumonceau, J. M., Machado, J. C., Macedo, G., Malfertheiner, P., Matysiak-Budnik, T., Megraud, F., Miki, K., O’Morain, C., Peek, R. M., Ponchon, T., Ristimaki, A., Rembacken, B., Carneiro, F., Kuipers, E. J., MAPS Participants, European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, European Helicobacter Study Group, European Society of Pathology & Sociedade Portuguesa de Endoscopia Digestiva. (2012). Management of precancerous conditions and lesions in the stomach (MAPS): Guideline from the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE), European Helicobacter Study Group (EHSG), European Society of Pathology (ESP), and the Sociedade Portuguesa de Endoscopia Digestiva (SPED). Virchows Archiv, 460, 19–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Lanza, F. L., Chan, F. K., Quigley, E. M., & Practice Parameters Committee of the American College of Gastroenterology. (2009). Guidelines for prevention of NSAID-related ulcer complications. The American Journal of Gastroenterology, 104, 728–738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Malfertheiner, P., Megraud, F., O’Morain, C. A., Atherton, J., Axon, A. T., Bazzoli, F., Gensini, G. F., Gisbert, J. P., Graham, D. Y., Rokkas, T., El-Omar, E. M., Kuipers, E. J. & European Helicobacter Study Group. (2012). Management of Helicobacter pylori infection–the Maastricht IV/Florence Consensus Report. Gut, 61, 646–664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Sostres, C., & Lanas, A. (2011). Gastrointestinal effects of aspirin. Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 8, 385–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Thiel, A., Mrena, J., & Ristimäki, A. (2011). Cyclooxygenase-2 and gastric cancer. Cancer Metastasis Reviews, 30, 387–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of PathologyHaartman Institute and Genome-Scale Biology, Research Programs Unit, HUSLAB/Helsinki University Central Hospital and University of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland