Enteric fever; Gastric fever; Slow fever
Typhoid fever is a severe systemic bacterial disease caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. It is characterized by prolonged fever, persistent bacteremia and severe inflammation of the intestines, especially the lymphoid tissue. Salmonella typhihas been a human pathogen for thousands of years thriving in conditions of poor sanitation and crowding. The name is derived from the ancient Greek “typhos” which means “cloud” or “smoke” and refers to the level of consciousness of the patients in the advanced stage of the disease. The classic presentation includes fever, malaise, diffuse abdominal pain, and diarrhea or constipation (in up to 38% of the patients). Untreated disease progresses through different stages. Incubation lasts 5–21 days depending on the health and immune status of the patient and the virulence of the bacteria. The onset is usually insidious with low-grade fever appearing first. During active invasion of...
References and Further Reading
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- Sabitha, P., Prabha Adhikari, M. R., Chowdary, A., Prabhu, M., Soofi, M., Shetty, M., Kamath, A., Lokaranjan, S. S., & Bangera, S. S. (2004). Comparison of the immunogenicity and safety of two different brands of Salmonella typhi VI capsular polysaccharide vaccine. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences, 58, 141–149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Smith, J. H. (1976). Typhoid fever. In C. H. Binford & D. H. Connor (Eds.), Pathology of tropical and extraordinary diseases (pp. 123–129). Washington, DC: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology.Google Scholar