Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract

2017 Edition
| Editors: Fátima Carneiro, Paula Chaves, Arzu Ensari

Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Anus

  • Denis ChatelainEmail author
  • Jean-François Fléjou
Reference work entry


Epidermoid carcinoma


Anal squamous cell carcinoma is a malignant epithelial tumor of the anal canal, composed of squamous-type epithelium, showing keratinization and/or intercellular bridges.

Clinical Features

Most patients present with anorectal bleeding. Other symptoms include anorectal pain and mass sensation. Tenesmus and fecal incontinence can suggest tumor invasion into the anal sphincters. Weight loss, inguinal adenopathy, and rectovaginal fistula are indicators of an advanced disease. At presentation, 30–50% of patients have a locally advanced disease with a mean tumor size of 3–4 cm. Clinically suspicious inguinal adenopathy can be found in 10–20% patients during physical examination, and this increases to 30–60% when the tumor is larger than 5 cm. Misdiagnosis and delay in diagnosis are common, because presenting symptoms are often nonspecific and similar to the symptoms of benign anal diseases such as hemorrhoids or fissures.
  • Incidence

    Anal squamous cell...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Cacheux, W., Lievre, A., De La Rochefordiere, A., Dieumegard, B., Cvitkovic, F., Labib, A., Mitry, E., & Buecher, B. (2012). Chemotherapy in the treatment of anal canal carcinoma. Digestive and Liver Disease, 44, 803–811.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Rousseau, D. L., Jr., Thomas, C. R., Jr., Petrelli, N. J., & Kahlenberg, M. S. (2005). Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Surgical Oncology, 14, 121–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Shia, J. (2010). An update on tumors of the anal canal. Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, 134, 1601–1611.Google Scholar
  4. Uronis, H. E., & Bendell, J. C. (2007). Anal cancer: An overview. The Oncologist, 12, 524–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Service d’Anatomie PathologiqueCentre Hospitalier et Universitaire du NordAmiensFrance
  2. 2.Faculté de Médecine Pierre et Marie Curie, Service d’Anatomie et Cytologie PathologiquesHôpital Saint-AntoineParisFrance