Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract

2017 Edition
| Editors: Fátima Carneiro, Paula Chaves, Arzu Ensari


  • Gabriel BecheanuEmail author
Reference work entry


Herniation; Rupture or break of the wall


Hernia represents a protrusion of an internal part of the body (organ or tissue) through a weakness in the muscular wall or in the surrounding tissue. The most common hernias are in the abdomen. Hernia could be congenital (as in umbilical hernia) or acquired when the pressure in the abdominal compartment is increased by different factors such as: heavy weight lifting, excessive coughing, chronic constipation, pregnancy, ascites, or obesity. Also the weakness of the membranes or muscular wall could be involved like in poor nutrition, losing weight, scars, or posttraumatic situations.

Study of thoraco-abdominal diaphragm reveals a volume reduction of the diaphragmatic muscle fibers with vasodilatation, perivascular inflammation, and an increase of interstitial space which appears edematous with hemorrhagias, especially in the crura muscular portion. Quantitative analysis suggests loss of elasticity and reduced functional...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Aguirre, D. A., Santosa, A. C., Casola, G., & Sirlin, C. B. (2005). Abdominal wall hernias: Imaging features, complications, and diagnostic pitfalls at multi-detector row CT. Radiographics, 25(6), 1501–1520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Antoniou, G. A., Tentes, I. K., Antoniou, S. A., Simopoulos, C., & Lazarides, M. K. (2011). Matrix metalloproteinase imbalance in inguinal hernia formation. Journal of Investigative Surgery, 24(4), 145–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ardeleanu, V., Chebac, G. R., Georgescu, C., Vesa, D., Frâncu, L., Frîncu, L. D., & Păduraru, D. (2010). The modifications suffered by the peri-esophageal anatomical structures in the hiatal hernia disease: A qualitative and quantitative microanatomic study. Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, 51(4), 765–770.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Szczesny, W., Glowacka, K., Marszalek, A., Gumanski, R., Szmytkowski, J., & Dabrowiecki, S. (2012). The ultrastructure of the fascia lata in hernia patients and healthy controls. Journal of Surgical Research, 172(1), e33–e37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PathologyFundeni Clinical Institute, Carola Davila University of Medicine and PharmacyBucharestRomania