Acute large bowel ischemia; Colon ischemia; Lower gastrointestinal ischemia
Ischemic colitis or lower gastrointestinal ischemia, for the first time described by Boley et al. in 1963, is a vascular condition of the lower gastrointestinal tract, in which the colon is injured due to an inadequate blood supply. The extent of damage of the colon will depend on the duration and cause of the ischemic injury, the involved blood vessel type and its localization as well as the degree of collateral blood supply. The insufficient blood supply induces an inflammation of the colon, evolving from mucosal damage to full-thickness or transmural necrosis.
The vascular supply of the colon consists of three arteries, namely, the superior mesenteric artery, distributing the ascending and the proximal two thirds of the transverse colon, the inferior mesenteric artery, nourishing the distal part of the transverse colon with the splenic flexure, descending colon and sigmoid, and the...
References and Further Reading
- Fenoglio-Preiser, C. M., Noffsinger, A. E., Stemmermann, G. N., Lantz, P. E., & Isaacson, P. G. (2008). Gastrointestinal pathology. An atlas and text (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
- Odze, R. D., & Goldblum, J. R. (2009). Surgical pathology of the GI tract, liver, biliary tract, and pancreas (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders/Elsevier.Google Scholar