Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract

2017 Edition
| Editors: Fátima Carneiro, Paula Chaves, Arzu Ensari

Carcinoma, Colorectal

  • Sibel ErdamarEmail author
Reference work entry


Colorectal carcinomas, Malignant epithelial tumors of the large intestine


Colorectal carcinoma is a malignant tumor arising from colonic epithelium. More than 90% of colorectal carcinomas (CRC) are adenocarcinomas.

The cause and pathogenesis of CRC are related to both environmental and genetic factors. Environmental factors contain diet rich in meat, high fat, carbohydrate, low fiber; lifestyle risk factors like cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption; and those which have effect on the intestinal microflora and chemical composition of the intraluminal content. Bile acids and their metabolites derived from bacterial action could also be potential carcinogen. Some vitamin deficiencies (vitamins B2, B6, B12, C, D, folate, etc.) have risk for CRC. The repeated colonic mucosal injury and repair as occurs in chronic idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease are important in the development of CRC. Various genetic factors are as follows: there is high predisposition for CRC...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Bosmann, F. T., Carnerio, F., Hruban, R. H., & Theise, N. D. (2010). WHO classification of tumours of the digestive system. Lyon: IARC.Google Scholar
  2. Funkhouser, W., Lubin, I. M., Monzon, F. A., Zehnbauer, B. A., Evans, J. P., Ogino, S., & Nowak, J. A. (2011). Relevance Pathogenesis and testing algorithm for mismatch repair-defective colorectal carcinomas (a report of association for molecular pathology). Journal of molecular diagnostics, 14, 91–103.Google Scholar
  3. Jass, J. R. (2007). Classification of colorectal cancer based on correlation of clinical, morphological and molecular features. Histopathology, 50, 113–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Pritchard, C. C., & Grady, W. M. (2011). Colorectal cancer molecular biology moves into clinical practice. Gut, 60, 116–129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Rosai, J. (2011). Gastrointestinal tract large bowel. In Rosai and Ackerman’s surgical pathology (10th ed., pp. 731–802). Edinburgh: Mosby Elsevier.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PathologyCerrahpasa Medical CollegeIstanbulTurkey