Impact of Low-Salt Diet

  • Flávia Ramos de Siqueira
  • Karin Carneiro de Oliveira
  • Joel Claudio Heimann
  • Luzia Naôko Shinohara Furukawa
Living reference work entry

Abstract

Studies in experimental animals and in groups of humans and epidemiological studies have shown that the sodium chloride or salt (sodium, Na, NaCl) plays an important role mainly in the regulation of blood pressure and represents an important environmental factor involved in the genesis of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, salt intake in the population has been a constant concern. Variable blood pressure responses to different content in sodium intake are found in experimental hypertension models and in humans, and the reasons for such heterogeneity are not fully elucidated. The reduction of dietary sodium intake is recommended by public health as one of the non-medicated treatments for hypertension and consequently reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, some studies have demonstrated side effects of salt dietary restriction, reporting changes in glucose metabolism (hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance), and these alterations are gender and time specific in experimental and population studies.

Keywords

Sodium Salt Low-salt diet Insulin resistance Chronic kidney disease Coronary heart disease Cardiovascular disease Blood pressure Hypertension Atherosclerosis Gestation 

List of Abbreviations

CHD

Coronary heart disease

CI

Confidence interval

CKD

Chronic kidney disease

CVD

Cardiovascular disease

HOMA-IR

Homeostasis model of assessment

LS

Low-salt diet

RAAS

Renin angiotensin aldosterone system

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Flávia Ramos de Siqueira
    • 1
  • Karin Carneiro de Oliveira
    • 1
  • Joel Claudio Heimann
    • 1
  • Luzia Naôko Shinohara Furukawa
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Experimental Hypertension, Department of Internal Medicine, School of MedicineUniversity of São PauloSão PauloBrazil

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