Technical Approaches for Desalination and Water Supplies for Drought

Living reference work entry

Abstract

Providing clean water for human consumption has become a major challenge at local, regional, national, and global levels due to excess population growth. The direct domestic water demand and the indirect industrial, agricultural, and environmental water needs to sustain this growth is expected to place serious strains on the currently available water resources. Water reuse and desalination technologies can provide a solution to this issue if implemented in a sustainable manner. Provision of clean water inevitably requires energy, which is currently being provided essentially by nonrenewable fossil fuels which is not a sustainable approach. This chapter discusses various options available for enhancing water supply in drought regions. Water reuse and desalination technologies have been discussed in detail. Energy needs and integration of renewable energy sources, energy recovery and process integration concepts have been discussed. Future research directions to develop energy-efficient water supply technologies are provided.

Keywords

Desalination Drought Water scarcity Water reuse Soil treatment Wetlands Cogeneration Reverse osmosis Membranes Thermal desalination Renewable energy Microfiltration Ultrafiltration Disinfection Ozonation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was partially supported by the grant, SU 836130 from the United States Environmental Protection Agency and research grants from the New Mexico Water Resources Research Institute. The author appreciates the support received from the Office of Research and Economic Development (ORED), Bagley College of Engineering (BCoE), and the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Mississippi State University.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringMississippi State UniversityMississippi StateUSA

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