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Lipid Response to Amino Acid Starvation in Fat Cells: Role of FGF21

  • Albert Pérez-Martí
  • Pedro F. Marrero
  • Diego Haro
  • Joana Relat
Living reference work entry

Abstract

Adaptation to food shortage requires temporal homeostatic adaptive responses to a condition of energy deficiency. Mammals have developed a wide range of mechanisms to detect and respond to episodes of malnutrition and starvation, including the capacity to adjust fuel oxidation in function of nutrient availability. Nutrient deprivation or starvation often correlates with amino acid deficiency. This chapter will outline the changes in the metabolic patterns and molecular mechanisms driving these adaptive responses at the whole body level, and particularly in white and brown adipose tissue.

Keywords

Starvation Aminoacidemia Essential amino acids Protein restriction ATF4 FGF21 White adipose tissue Brown adipose tissue Lipolysis Thermogenesis Energy expenditure 

List of Abbreviations

AAR

Amino-acid response

ATF4

Activating transcription factor 4

BAT

Brown adipose tissue

DIO

Diet induced obesity

DIO2

Iodothyronine deiodinase 2

eIF2

Eukaryotic initiation factor 2

ERK

Extracellular regulated kinase

FA

Fatty acids

FASN

Fatty acid synthase

FGF

Fibroblast growth factor

FGFR

Fibroblast growth factor receptor

FRS2

Fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2

GCN2

General control nonderepressible 2

GLUT1

Glucose transporter 1

HCD

High carbohydrate diet

HSL

Hormone sensitive lipase

KD

Ketogenic diet

KLB

Beta klotho

LPD

Low protein diet

mTOR

Mammalian target of rapamicine

NRF2

Nuclear respiratory factor

PERK

Protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase

PGC1

PPAR gamma coactivator 1

PPAR

Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor

SLC6A19

Solute carrier family 6 member 19

SREBP

Steroid response element binding protein

TSC1

Tuberous sclerosis complex

UCP1

Uncoupling protein 1

UTR

Untranslated region

WAT

White adipose tissue

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Albert Pérez-Martí
    • 1
    • 2
  • Pedro F. Marrero
    • 1
    • 2
  • Diego Haro
    • 1
    • 2
  • Joana Relat
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Nutrition, Food Sciences and GastronomySchool of Pharmacy and Food Sciences. Torribera Food Campus. University of BarcelonaSanta Coloma de Gramenet, BarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Institute of Biomedicine of the University of Barcelona (IBUB)BarcelonaSpain
  3. 3.Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety of the University of Barcelona (INSA-UB)Santa Coloma de GramenetBarcelonaSpain

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