Encyclopedia of Geochemistry

2018 Edition
| Editors: William M. White


  • Hélène BureauEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-39312-4_83

Element Data

Atomic Symbol: Br

Atomic Number: 35

Atomic Weight: 79.901–79.907

Stable Isotopes: 79Br: 50.5–50.8%

81Br: 49.2–49.5%

1 Atm Melting Point: 266 K

1 Atm Boiling Point: 332.7 K

1 Atm of Nebular Condensationa: 546 K

Valence State: 4s2p5

Common Valences: −1, 0, +1, +3, +5

Common Ions: Br, BrO, BrO3, BrO4

Ionic Radiusa: 196 pm

Pauling Electronegativity: 2.96

First Ionization Potential: 1139.9 kJ/mol

Chondritic (CI) Abundance b: 3.26 ppm

Silicate Earth Abundance cb: 50–75 ppb

Crustal Abundanced: 0.88 ppm

Oceanic Cruste: 0.17 ppm

Depleted Mantlee: 0.02 ppm

Seawater Abundancef: ~67 ppm

Evaporitesg: 151 ppm

Sediments + Pore Waterh: 97 ppm

Tropospherei: 0.016 ppbv

Core Abundancej: ~0.7 ppm

from: aJ. Meija et al. (2016) bJambon et al. 1995; cMcDonough and Sun; dRudnick and Gao 2003; eSchilling et al. 1980; fBruland and Lohan 2003; gHay et al. 2006; hKnaugh (1998); iWarneck 2000; jMcDonough, 2005.


Bromine is the third halogen element located in the group XVII of the...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Aiuppa A, Federico C, Franco A, Giudice G, Gurrieri S, Inguaggiato S, Luizzo M, McGonicle AJS, Valenza M (2005) Emission of bromine and iodine from Mount Etna volcano. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 6(8):8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aiuppa A, Baker DR, Webster JD (2009) Halogens in volcanic systems. Chem Geol 263:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bobrowski N, Hönninger G, Galle B, Platt U (2003) Detection of bromine monoxide in a volcanic plume. Nature 423:273–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Broadley MW, Ballentine CJ, Chavrit D, Dallai L, Burgess R (2016) Sedimentary halogens and noble gases within Western Antarctic xenoliths: implications of extensive volatile recycling to the sub continental lithospheric mantle. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 176:139–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bruland KW, Lohan MC (2003) Controls of trace metals in seawater. Pergamon, Oxford, pp 23–47Google Scholar
  6. Bureau H, Métrich N (2003) An experimental study of bromine behavior in water-saturated silicic melts. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 67(9):1689–1697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bureau H, Keppler H, Métrich N (2000) Volcanic degassing of bromine and iodine: experimental fluid/melt partitioning data and applications to stratospheric chemistry. Earth Planet Sci Lett 183:51–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bureau H, Foy E, Raepsaet C, Somogyi A, Munsch P, Simon G, Kubsky S (2010) Bromine cycle in subduction zones through in situ br monitoring in diamond anvil cells. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 74:3839–3850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burgess R, Layzelle E, Turner G, Harris JW (2002) Constraints on the age and halogen composition of mantle fluids in Siberian coated diamonds. Earth Planet Sci Lett 197:193–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cochain B, Sanloup C, de Grouchy C, Crépisson C, Bureau H, Leroy C, Kantor I, Irifune T (2015) Bromine speciation in hydrous silicate melts at high pressure. Chem Geol 404:18–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Daniel JS, Solomon S, Portmann RW, Garcia RR (1999) Stratospheric ozone destruction: the importance of bromine relative to chlorine. J Geophys Res 104(D):23871–23880CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Eggenkamp HGM (2014) The geochemistry of stable chlorine and bromine isotopes. Springer, Heidelberg. 172ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hay WW, Migdisov A, Balukhovsky AN, Wold CN, Flögel S, Söding E (2006) Evaporites and the salinity of the ocean during the Phanerozoic: implications for climate, ocean circulation and life. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 240:3–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jambon A, Déruelle B, Dreibus G, Pineau F (1995) Chlorine and bromine abundance in MORB: the contrasting behavior of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and East Pacific Rise and implications for chlorine geodynamic cycle. Earth Planet Sci Lett 126:101–117Google Scholar
  15. John T, Scambelluri M, Frische M, Barnes JD, Bach W (2011) Dehydration of subducting serpentinite: implications for halogen mobility in subduction zones and the deep halogen cycle. Earth Planet Sci Lett 308:65–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Johnson LH, Burgess R, Turner G, Milledge HJ, Harris JW (2000) Noble gas and halogen geochemistry of mantle fluids: comparison of African and Canadian diamonds. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 64:717–732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kendrick MA, Kamenetsky VS, Phillips D, Honda M (2012a) Halogen systematics (Cl, Br, I) in Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts: a Macquarie Island case study. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 81:82–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kendrick MA, Woodhead JD, Kamenetsky VS (2012b) Tracking halogens through the subduction cycle. Geology 40:1075–1078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kendrick MA, Honda M, Pettke T, Scambelluri M, Phillips D, Giuliani A (2013) Subduction zone fluxes of halogens and noble gases in seafloor and forarc serpentinites. Earth Planet Sci Lett 365:86–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Knaugh LP (1998) Salinity history of the Earth’s early ocean. Nature 395:554–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kutterolf S, Hansteen TH, Freundt A, Wehrmann H, Appel K, Krüger K, Pérez W (2015) Bromine and chlorine emissions from Plinian eruptions along the Central American Volcanic Arc: from source to atmosphere. Earth Planet Sci Lett 429:234–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Leisen M, Boiron MC, Richard A, Dubessy J (2012) Determination of Cl and Br concentrations in individual fluid inclusions by combining microthermometry and LA-ICPMS analysis: implications for the origin of salinity in crustal fluids. Chem Geol 330–331:197–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Liu W, Etschmann B, Testemale D, Hazemann JL, Rempel K, Müller H, Brugger J (2014) Gold transport in hydrothermal fluids: competition among the CL-, Br-, HS- and NH3(aq) ligands. Chem Geol 376:11–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lodders K (2003) Solar system abundances and condensation temperatures of the elements. Astrophys J 591:1220–1247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Marty B (2012) The origins and concentrations of water, carbon, nitrogen and noble gases on Earth. Earth Planet Sci Lett 313–314:56–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mather TA (2016) Volcanism and the atmosphere: the potential role of the atmosphere in unlocking the reactivity of volcanic emissions. Phil Trans R Soc A 366:4581–4595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. McDonough WF (2005) Compositional model for the Earth’s core. In: Carlson RW (ed) The mantle and Core. Elsevier, Oxford, pp 547–568Google Scholar
  28. McDonough WF, Sun SS (1995) The composition of the Earth. Chem Geol 120:223–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Meija J, Coplen TB, Berglund M, Brand WA, De Bièvre P, Gröning M, Holden NE, Irrgeher J, Loss RD, Walczyk T, Prohaska T (2016) Isotopic compositions of the elements 2013 (IUPAC technical report). Pure Appl Chem 88:293–306. http://www.nist.gov/pml/data/comp.cfmGoogle Scholar
  30. O’Reilly SY, Griffin WL (2000) Apatite in the mantle: implications for metasomatic processes and high heat production in Phanerozoic mantle. Lithos 53:217–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Oppenheimer C, Tsanev VI, Braban CF, Cox RA, Adams JW, Aiuppa A, Bobrowski N, Demelle P, Barcaly J, McGonicle AJS (2006) BrO formation in volcanic plumes. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 70:2935–2941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pagé L, Hattori K, De Hoog JCM, Okay AI (2016) Halogen (F, Cl, Br, I) behaviour in subducting slabs: a study of lawsonite blueschists in western Turkey. Earth Planet Sci Lett 442:113–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pyle DM, Mather TA (2009) Halogens in igneous processes and their fluxes to the atmosphere and oceans from volcanic activity: a review. Chem Geol 263:110–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rudnick RL, Gao S (2003) Composition of the continental crust. Treatrise Geochem 3:1–64Google Scholar
  35. Schilling BG, Bergeron MB, Evans R (1980) Halogens in the mantle beneath the North Atlantic. Philos Trans R Soc Lond A 297:147–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sumino H, Burgess R, Mizukami T, Wallis SR, Holland G, Ballentine CJ (2010) Seawater-derived noble gases and halogens preserved in exhumed mantle wedge peridotite. Earth Planet Sci Lett 294:163–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Teiber H, Marks MAW, Wenzel T, Siebel W, Altherr R, Markl G (2013) The distribution of halogens (F, Cl, Br) in granitoid rocks. Chem Geol 374–375:92–109Google Scholar
  38. Vainikka P, Hupa M (2012) Review on bromine in solid fuels. Part 1: natural occurrence. Fuels 95:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. von Glasow R, Crutzen PJ (2014) Tropospheric halogen chemistry. In: Treatrise in geochemistry, vol 4, 2nd edn. Elsevier, Netherlands, pp 1–67Google Scholar
  40. Warneck P (2000) Chemistry of the natural atmosphere, 2nd edn. Academic, London. 927 ppGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut de Minéralogie, de Physique desMatériaux et de Cosmochimie (IMPMC)Sorbonne Universités – UPMCUniv. Paris 06, CNRSUMR 7590, MuséumNational d’Histoire NaturelleParisFrance