Encyclopedia of Geochemistry

2018 Edition
| Editors: William M. White

Clay Membranes

  • Ian C. BourgEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-39312-4_8

Definition

Clay membranes are clay-rich media (soils, sediments, or sedimentary rocks) that exhibit partial restriction of solute migration relative to that of water, i.e., semipermeable membrane properties.

Geochemical Importance

Clay membrane properties have the potential to significantly modulate the groundwater hydrology of clay-rich media, at least in some cases. They have been studied as a potential cause of erratic fluid pressures in sedimentary formations and, also, because of their potential impacts on well-bore stability, chemico-osmotic consolidation, water and nutrient fluxes in soils, and waste isolation using natural and engineered clay barriers (Takeda et al. 2014).

Phenomenology

Clay membranes give rise to two geochemical phenomena: hyperfiltration and osmosis. Hyperfiltration occurs when a hydraulic pressure gradient drives water flow across a clay membrane. For solutes that exhibit restricted migration through the membrane, the solute concentration of the permeate is...

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References

  1. Bader S, Kooi H (2005) Modelling of solute and water transport in semi-permeable clay membranes: comparison with experiments. Adv Water Resour 28:203–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  4. Malusis MA, Shackelford CD, Maneval JE (2012) Critical review of coupled flux formations for clay membranes based on nonequilibrium thermodynamics. J Contam Hydrol 138–139:40–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Shackelford CD, Lee J-M (2003) The destructive role of diffusion on clay membrane behavior. Clay Clay Miner 51:186–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Takeda M, Hiratsuka T, Manaka M, Finsterle S, Ito K (2014) Experimental examination of the relationships among chemico-osmotic, hydraulic, and diffusion parameters of Wakkanai mudstones. J Geophys Res Solid Earth 119Google Scholar
  7. Tournassat C, Appelo CAJ (2011) Modelling approaches for anion-exclusion in compacted Na-bentonite. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 75:3698–3710CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Princeton Environmental InstitutePrinceton UniversityPrincetonUSA